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Original colour photo-illustrated self-wraps. Noboyoshi Araki Senchimentaru no Tabi. Sentimental Journey. Cardboard slipcase. Complete with text printed on a green fill-in paper glued on the inside of the cover, reflecting the bookseller's request, after the book had been printed, that Araki add an explanatory text.

Without a doubt the most exemplary book by Nobuyoshi Araki, documenting the intimacy of his honeymoon with cutting honesty and the aesthetic of "Provoke". Araki would later refer to the "novel" or auto-fiction when discussing this work. The layout of the book is as important as the photographs.

It was his first publication as an author and it had a decisive influence on several generations of photographers in Japan and elsewhere. Tokyo: Tojusha. Illustrated with photographs taken between and , in both color and black-and-white. Original wrappers with photo-illustrated dust jacket and bellyband. Originally scheduled for publication in , but not published until almost a decade later, this work is a visual compendium of extreme images of sex and violence the book was never published outside of Japan.

The variety of edited scenarios include many of Araki's most famous images, including those of his wife Yoko and also Yukio Mishima Kimitake Hiraoka, an author. The themes of violent sexual practice, and in particular of bondage, so often present in the artist's work are captured through a combination of black-and-white and color imagery, with the use of both numerous close-ups and wide-angle shots, and ranging from staged interiors to landscape views.

Tokyo: Miki Shuppan. Illustrated with black-and-white heliogravure-printed photographs. Design by Mikuo Nakamura. Textured endpapers. Original photo-illustrated French-style wrappers with elongated flaps. First edition of Araki's initial conventionally published book following his early series of photocopy books.

Despite the eroticism being more playful and non-threatening than is evident in his later bondage-obsessed books, Araki still to combat problems with the Japanese censors. Many of his proposed images were rejected. A compromise, at least in terms of Araki's original vision and imagery, was found with the development by Nakamura of a layout that split the rejected images into sections which could be reassembled by folding opposing pages together across multiple spreads.

With the censors appeased, Araki was able to publish something close to the book he had originally intended. Original color photo-illustrated self-wraps. Female models are photographed nude in front of a plain background. The cover photograph is of their wedding.

The photographing of this most intimate of occasions attracted much criticism in a country which still valued a strict code of behavior. Auer, photo books from the M. Auer collection, p. Nobuyoshi Araki Senchimentaru no Tabi. Sentimental Journey , Tokyo: Privately printed, Araki is a major celebrity, but when this book was self-published in , he was unknown. It is a photo diary of Araki's honeymoon, including an image of a gravestone that provides an eerie foreshadowing of a later book chronicling his wife's death.

All the elements that make Araki a world-class photographer are on full display here: the juxtaposition of the erotic and the banal, the expressionless beauty of modern Japanese life, the unadorned image, reduced to its bare necessity. Sentimental Journey is one of the most important Japanese photobooks published.

After hundreds of books and significant fame, it remains Araki's best and most influential work. First and only edition. Though it was produced as a work of pure science, the photographic plates, reproduced a s luxurious autotypes, are what speak to us today. They are beautiful abstractimages, produced by sending electric discharges through water, similar in appearance to lightning, but more fullsome and symmetrical.

The photographs were made by Mr. Worsnop , "a well-known photographer in Rothbury. Vol II is titled: Supplement to Lord Armstrong's work on electric movement in air and water, being a continuation of his experiments together with an extension of them made in concert with Henry Stroud This volume contains an additional 14 plates of which 12 are printed in colors. This vol is rare; OCLC locate only 5 copies. Vol II rebacked. Vol I inscribed: From Lord Armstrong with his compliments.

They participate with Piero Manzoni and Enrico Castellani to the organization and the activities of the galleria Azimut. On September they exhibit mixed material and monochrome artworks at galleria Pater in Milan. After becoming fully aware of the tendency towards a tabula rasa, which was typical to the visual arts of those years, they felt the need to take this trend to its extreme consequences and to overcome it through the actions of what had become, in fact and since long, a group.

The variation is obtained through the movement that modifies the spatial structure of the artwork over time. This proposal opens a phase of collective debate, which produces a series of scenarios. Firstly, the need of a random component emerges, in order to break the cyclical mechanical movement. This implies to allow the audience to actually intervene in the work.

Involving the different contributions, the group prepares a series of programmatic texts with a strong philosophical side. Referring to unrealized utopias proposed by historical avant-garde movements, Gruppo T has opened research scenarios and new operational methods. They started by producing works, both collective and individual, based on the effects of variation in material, surface, color, etc.

Miriorama 1, the first manifestation of the group, was organized in January at galleria Pater in Milan. On this occasion the Declaration was published. Four solo exhibitions followed, one per each artist of the group Miriorama 2 to 5. Miriorama 6 in is the second group exhibition and marks the presence of Grazia Varisco as a new member of the group. On the occasion of Miriorama 7, at galleria San Matteo in Genua in , the second theoretical declaration of the group was published: it is a text where the word Miriorama is repeated never-endingly.

At Miriorama 8 in , Gruppo T exhibits an edition of ten copies of five multiples, numbered and signed, at the shop of Bruno Danese in Milan the multiples were re-edited by Alessi in For Miriorama 9 in , Gruppo T sends fifteen ultra-light artworks to Minami gallery in Tokyo, upon the invitation of the artist Shuzo Takiguchi.

The catalogue of Miriorama 12 at galleria del Cavallino in Venice in was a folding combinatory poem by Nanni Balestrini. Collection of catalogues from the Galleria dell'Ariete, Milan. Of catalogues published, this set comprises , the most complete group ever assembled. List furnished upon request. Volume one is by Cavalli, two by Vender and three is by various artists titledf Mountains. Very rare to see complete in fine condition. Vol , ,20 , First ed.

Complete run of 20 issues 1 through 20, plus the Special Issue. Illustrated stiff wrappers. The issues are fine. The first three issues with printed wraparound bands obi. In Japanese and English; though some of the essays and interviews are in Japanese only. Includes bibliographies, biographies, interviews, essays, reviews. A complete run of all issues published of this important Japanese periodical. Moriyama started the Camp gallery as a way of promoting young Tokyo artists.

Kitajima was the first photographer to show his work here, beginning with his Tokyo project, followed by Okinawa. This unique, ephemeral publication dates from , marking the opening of the gallery and announcing planned projects. Japanese Photography Artistes Divers Geribara 5 1 set, 3 vol. Paperback with illustrated covers. Photographer: Takase Yoshio. Geribata brings together several young avant-garde Japanese photographers, of whom Araki is the most prominent, connected by similar tastes for farce and irony associated with their conceptual research.

The first volume is a solo work by Takase Yoshio and deals mainly with graffiti in Tokyo public toilets. The second is a collective work uniting differently cropped portraits of young girls posing on Japanese beaches. The third, visually less homogenous, allows every photographer of the group to make a portrait of a woman of his choice. Ken was published by Shaken, a company established by the photographer Tomatsu Shomei, who provided the cover photograph for the first issue. Each of the three issues that appeared before the magazine ceased publication was edited by a different photographer: Sawano Yoshio, Naito Masatoshi, and Kimura Tsunehisa.

The first issue contained criticism of the Osaka World Exposition and cultural criticism related to photography. Japanese Photography Artistes Divers Provoke 3 vol. Provoke 3: Complete collection of this legendary publication NB: Provoke 4 appeared in , after the group fell apart uniting the most innovative post-war Japanese photographers. Breaking tradition and taboo, Provoke presented a new style - violent, dirty, embracing the accidental, the blur and shadow of social critique. Recognized as the first book to be photographically printed and illustrated, it is a landmark in the history of photography, employing the new process of cyanotype invented by Sir John Hershel in The plates were made by placing the dry specimens on light-sensitive paper and then exposing the sheets to sunlight.

Self-published and printed in a limited number of copies for private circulation, each unique, comprising elegantly arranged photographic prints of seaweeds listed in alphabetical order, with captions hand-written by Atkins. This copy is a rare volume that has remained in a private library for many years; bound in green morocco leather with a hand-written inscription. Publisher's cloth.

The authors were practicing architects in Liverpool and wrote the book to meet the growing demands of the gothic revival movement. The book was an instant success. Some of the Audsleys designs were directly copied to wallpaper and stencils. The thirty-six plates are fine chromolithographs by Firmin-Didot, Paris, the best color printers of the time.

First octavo edition containing hand colored lithographs. Armorial bookplate of Harmon Pumpelly and his signature in light ink on title page of each volume. Philadelphia: J. Chevalier, [] Half-titles, subscribers' lists at end of each volume. Hitchcock, R. Trembly and others, printed and colored by J. Bowen, wood-engraved anatomical diagrams in text intermittent offsetting and spotting, particularly to the tissue guards and corresponding text leaves at the beginning and end of each volume.

Bound in full red morocco gilt, elaborately decorated in gilt extremities a bit rubbed. The first octavo edition of John James Audubon's masterpiece, a tall copy with colors very clean and fresh. The resulting series of plates constitutes the most extensive American color-plate book produced up to that time. Alois Auer Kosmos. Cosmos magazine for applied natural science.

With 4 nature printed plates, one being a fold out very large tropical leaf. Fischer No. The discovery of the Nature Printing-Process. With 19 1 double-page nature printed plates. Alois Auer Faust. Poligrafisch-illustrierte Zeitschrift , BK. Monthly Illustrated magazine for Art, Science, Industry, and Social life the early, important compendium of printing methods and techniques.

Early salt prints include St. Stephan's Cathedral and Tower, Venice, a microscopic image of a Fohren-Spinne larvae, magnified x and 3 magnified insect wings, by Ernst Heeger. The 32 early nature prints show lace samples, seaweeds, plants, sections of wood, leaves, textiles, fish tail, and a full bat with open wings! Also illustrated with hundreds of chromolithographs several folding , woodcuts, etchings, engravings, mezzotints, embossings, and more featuring landscapes, genre scenes, nautical, medallions, flora and fauna, book illustration, and others.

Alois Auer was the director of the Austrian State Printing House, at the time the largest and most advanced in Europe, which created illustrated volumes of scientific interest and produced many advances in printing technology. K Hof- und Staatsdruckerei , It is the first published work describing the process of Nature Printing. Not in Fischer. Alois Auer Album der K.

Hof- und Staatsdruckerei in Wien , BK. Naturselbstdrucke in 6 parts being: 28 Nature-printed and coloured plates of plants, flowers and leaves; 5 nature-printed and coloured plates of mosses; 5 nature-printed plates of fossils; 10 nature-printed plates of engraved etched stones; 11 nature-printed coloured plates of fabrics mostly lace and 2 entitled various but depicting only snake skins. Wien, K. In an orig. With an evocation of graphic art, this book demonstrates systems of logic pictorially.

Each sheet has an array of cutouts used as spray paint stencils to create a pattern of circles and tubular pill shapes. Spray paint on plotter cut Bristol paper with cloth binding. Card inserted in the book serves as the colophon. Edition of 10 copies. For [2,3], Auerbach has created an oversized pop-up book featuring six die-cut paper sculptures that unfold into elaborate forms. This groundbreaking project stands as an astonishing art-object, part bookwork and part sculpture, and represents an advance in the field of pop-up technology.

Although the edition was , the book was unfortunately published shortly before Hurricane Sandy. The publisher's storage space was inundated with flood waters and the bulk of the edition was destroyed, making the few copies that were dispersed pre-Hurricane Sandy hard to locate. Synopsis: For [2,3], Auerbach has created an oversized pop-up book featuring six die-cut paper sculptures that unfold into wonderful, elaborate forms. This deluxe set includes a facsimile of the complete page text and an accordion-bound volume of Baldessari's 39 double photo-collages printed by offset lithography in black and 7 colors.

The page photo-collages can be viewed as 2-page spreads or unfolded to an almost foot length. Overall size approximately 11 x 8 x 4. The three volumes housed in publisher's slipcase; overall in excellent condition. The book features a series of cropped movie stills depicting either a telephone or pearls. Signed and dated by the artist in pen. Portfolio of fourteen photolithographs with letterpress printed paper folio cover and fourteen leaves, incorporating title sheet, twelve sheets of images, and colophon page.

Cream saddle-sewn textured paper wrappers, text in black; tiny mark to cover. Circular punched hole at fore-edge as issued. Pitfalls to avoid; tales for the art unwary. Bound book of 14 hard and soft ground etchings on natural Gampi and Rives de Lin papers. Text by Balka, letterpress.

The artist paid homeless people on the streets of California to allow him to imprint their bare feet mostly toes on a copper plate to make these prints. The result is a startling collection of strong but subtle images that reflect the frailty of human existence. The edition is limited to 25 copies: 1—10 are bound books; numbers are portfolios of loose pages.

Edition of 20 copies. First Edition Thus. Oblong 4to. Printed Buckram in Dust Jacket. Photography Monograph. Designed by Thomas F. Text in English and German. It reproduces as a full page each of the fifty-one images that comprised the Castelli Graphics photographic print portfolio of the same name that was issued in an edition of forty with six artist's proofs. A bright, most handsome example of the uncommon first printing cited on pages of The Hasselblad Center's "The Open Book", and pages of "The Book of Books".

In their place was the alluring vacuum of anonymity though that seems beside the point in pictures devoid of any human presence and desolation so complete it was almost elegant. Signed and inscribed by L. With text in braille by Evgen Bavcar a blind photographer from Slovenia. Edition of 50 signed copies, this copy is exquisity bound with a goat skin binding and an alabaster cover made to reflect the surface of a canvas of the artist.

Bernd and Hilla Becher Set of first 15 editions , The German husband and wife team of Bernd and Hilla Becher have spent 40 years documenting the relics of the receding industrial age, classifying these near —obsolete structures according to function: lime kilns, cooling towers, blast furnaces winding towers, water towers, gas holders and silos.

In this, their groundbreaking first book, the Bechers established the disciplined approach they would follow throughout their career, objective, centered views made with large-format cameras and finely grained black and white film, working under overcast skies early in the morning during spring and fall only to insure a diffuse light with minimal shadows.

Signed in pencil. Copy no. In , Dr. Weather Bureau, sorted through some of Bentley's photomicrographs the original negatives and some of his notebooks are housed at the Jericho Historical Society, Vermont and published of his pictures—most of them of ice crystals and about of sleet, ice, frost, and dew. By adapting a microscope to a bellows camera, Bentley became the first person to photograph a single snow crystal in His work illustrated that no two snowflakes are alike.

Former Warhol Factory acolyte, Berlin narcissistically documented her life via Polaroid photographs. March Sheet size: c. Small tear and corner repaired on first page, otherwise in fine condition. The engravings for the Book of Job were commissioned formally by painter John Linnell — in an agreement of March 25, Indeed, the family sold 68 sets of India proof copies at Christie's in Sets of the Illustrations for the Book of Job —the last complete series of engravings completed before Blake's death in —with a contemporary provenance are of the utmost rarity and sets sold during the artist's lifetime and within a month of publication, are in practical terms unknown.

Always fascinated by the Book of Job, Blake's engravings were based on a series of watercolors executed between and for his patron Thomas Butts. The first edition was issued in 3 versions: copies on laid India with the word 'Proof' as here, 65 copies on French paper with 'Proof', and on Whatman paper with the word 'Proof' erased.

Foster Damon, A Blake Dictionary [], pg. They are Blake's most ambitious, most unchallengeable, series. His inspiration was never richer, and his execution never more consistently maintained. Title and contents page, 80 photographs on 40 sheets after Karl Blossfeldt, contents loose as issued.

Publisher's half cloth over patterned paper covered boards, yellow title label on the upper cover, silk tie Library blindstamp. Printed from the original glass negatives. Signature red cloth cover with photocopies of newspapers and some of his earlier pieces.

Edition of copies signed and numbered. Deluxe issue with hand sewn cover. Printed by Boetti in Ascoli Piceno, Text by Anne-Marie Sauzeau-Boetti. Boetti worked with Anne-Marie Sauzeau on this book for over seven years. Fluctuations up to miles in length were no exception.

In the book, each page is devoted to one river with a factual list of its technical data. The book conveys metaphor, process, and reality. This copy is 31 of deluxe copies, with hand-sewn cover. Ex-collection Umberto Morera.

Edition with red cover, numbered; pages. Produced over seven years, Boetti collaborated on this book with art critic Anne-Marie Sauzeau. Boetti had a keen interest in the relationship between chance and order, numbers and the world in various means of organization and classification, and the ways in which cultural order is imposed on the complexities of nature.

Each page is devoted to one river with a factual list of its technical data. Edition of copies. Pierre Bonnard Unique copy of Bonnard Lithographe. Claude Roger-Marx. List upon request. One other bookplate design is for Misia Sert, a pianist, art patron, and celebrated muse of the Nabis.

Provenance: Claude Roger-Mark — , writer, composer, playwright, art critic, and art historian. With 17 orig. Paris, Vollard Loose sheets and plates in orig. Edition number of The coppers and wood blocks were destroyed after printing. Ambroise Vollard Paris. Edition n of Mirbeau's story of a semi-wild Australian pup's life in France and his attempts to accommodate "civilization", first published in but probably known best today through this edition published by Vollard with Bonnard's etched illustrations.

The project was Bonnard's first extended use of etching and drypoint, He began working on the illustrative possibilities of the novel after its initial publication, and his first sketches were published the following year in Les Cahiers d'aujourd'hui.

The Vollard edition did not appear until 10 years later. The collaboration between the publisher and art dealer, Vollard, and Bonnard was of the greatest significance in the development of modern art and particularly the Livre de peinture.

In-folio de 6 pp. Il y a quelques retouches au pinceau sur les planches. Ils contiennent tous deux 45 planches. This copy has a title page with below an unprinted table for the first 15 plates, 4 pages for captions of plates numbered 16 to 45 et 34 plates. Only two copies of this book are found in public libraries, both are in France. They have 45 plates. It was the only copy sold since decades. Provenance : This copy comes from a house in Limoux, a small town in the South of France, where the author was born.

It was most certainly there, since the publication of this work. The 1,page volume of pure color blocks concealed in a black box is a limited edition of 99 copies, signed and numbered in pencil. Designed as a tribute to one of her inspirations, the minimal artist Ellsworth Kelly, who passed recently. The enormous 1,page volume of offset pure color blocks is encased in a clamshell black box and printed in a limited edition of only 99 copies, each signed and numbered in pencil.

Amsterdam: Slewe Gallery. This is copy Foreward by Rem Koolhaas. Irma Boom has become one of the most widely renowned and respected book designers in the world today. Her often ingenious solutions to individual book productions have gained Boom international fame and her work is now collected by many leading museums such as the MoMA in New York. Edition of signed and numbered copies. One volume, Holloway page , Mitchell page Bosai lived from to , at Edo.

Mitchell says he established his own school and became very famous. Holloway reproduces several illustrations from the Imaginary Mountains: 9 to 12 in the black and white section. It is a book of subtle, calm, quiet, color woodcut with the most delicate and sometimes barely noticeable background tints. Commonly small figures share the landscape or view it, contemplating or fishing or conversing.

Printed on fine, rather soft paper; original pale lilac covers with the remains of the original title label. In the book, she reminisces, through images and text, about the impact the river had on her. Years later, Bourgeois was to go back to that house with her own family only to find the river to no longer exist, "only the trees that my father had planted along its edge remained as a witness.

Edition of 1, copies. Louise Bourgeois was born in Paris in The river was key to their relocation as it was imperative to the family's business of tapestry restoration for the washing of the tapestries. In the book she reminisces through images and text, "With the soil from that river we planted geraniums, masses of peonies, and beds of asparagus Years later, Bourgeois was to go back to the house with her own family only to find the river to no longer exist, "only the trees that my father had planted along its edge remained as a witness".

This book faithfully reproduces that original fabric work. Third version of the original book in fabric. Housed in a blind embossed cardboard slipcase, with a white Japanese linen embossed cover. Edition of Published by Matthew Zucker, New York. This book faithfully reproduces the original fabric work of the same year. Housed in a blind embossed slipcase, each book is uniquely bound with hand dyed and distressed linen. Complete book with text and a suite of the 9 etchings of spiders with all the etchings signed by the artist.

In England, the same technique was employed by Bradbury, with colour, when he came to make the illustrations for W. Johnstone's book of British seaweeds and for T. For this smaller octavo edition with more plates the same process was involved by which the ferns were printed in green and occasionally finished by additional brown hand-colouring.

Reference: Jackson p. Frank Elgar ; [Lithographies originales de] Georges Braque. Edition: copies. This is number 96 of With Dedication to Nicolous Rauch with pink painted design on title page. Four mixed etchings, of which two are printed in black, one in black with bistre border, and one in blue.

Book signed by artist. Original wrappers in original cloth box. Text by Jean Paulhan. First edition, one of exemplars produced for the members of the club no copies were for sale. Illustrated with 14 lithographs in tones of blue or brown on handmade Auvergne du Moulin Richard de Bas paper; four are hors-texte. Provenance J. References: Vallier ; Rauch ; Monod In this book Georges Braque records his thoughts on art and life in his own handwriting and with his own illustrations.

They are reproduced with ninety-four black and white photolithographs. During World War I Braque was wounded in the head and was temporarily blinded. This injury prevented him from painting for over a year. He resumed working in and the personal notes in this book began that year. This book has been very popular. It started its life in with a limited edition of only ninety-five signed copies of ninety-four pages each including three photolithographs, two in color.

The cover of this second edition is the same lithograph as for the first edition but it is printed in a single shade of blue rather than two shades of blue. Printed by Fernand Mourlot. Includes one signed etching and aquatint. Text by Robert Rius. A unique flip book using only lines in movement dedicated to Robert Rauschenberg. Breer was best known for his films, which combine abstract and representational painting, hand-drawn rotoscoping, original 16mm and 8mm film footage, photographs, and other materials.

Breer was an experimental filmmaker, painter, and sculptor. This unpaginated flip book is an experiment that helped him transit from painting to films. I was working in very simple geometric forms, hard edge, conventional, you know, more or less conventional neo-plasticism. I had to invent my own system because I had no training in filmmaking at all and certainly none in animation. I only knew that I had to do one frame at a time. Unpaginated "flip-book" consisting of approx. Breer , known as the "kinetic poet of the avant-garde", was renowned for his spearheading efforts in animation, utilizing both abstract as well as representational images throughout a career of over 50 years.

He worked with avant-garde movements of his time and was associated with high modernism, fluxus, pop, and other genres. Madame Therese Bertrand-Fontaine's copy 14 of 60 deluxe issue with colored au pochoir lithograph by Salvador Dali and inscribed by Breton. Lithograph in black ink; untrimmed sheet of the pages of a posthumously published miniature book by the artist called "The Conquest of Space: Atlas for the Use of Artists and the Military".

From the edition of only 50 copies. HC copy no. VII with Estate stamp on back. Number 17 of 50 copies. In Campo Urbano Ugo Mulas disbands with conventional divisions between documentation, portraiture, and artwork by employing tilted camera angles, unusual framing, and a series of images that visually describe a daylong intervention in the city of Como. The work foreshadows his later engagement with the conceptual side of photography, its framing and mirroring of the world.

James Buckman The natural history of British meadow and pasture grasses, with an account of their economy and agricultural indications. Three volumes. The first series had appeared in two volumes in , but as usual the works are completely separate and independent.

The first series of the Kanga Shinan had been illustrated by Kanyosai, not by Bumpo. This is much more than a painting manual of course. It includes studies of tree forms, house building, leaves; many pages of figures closely observed, not merely demonstrating ways to draw them, and taking part in all kinds of activities from calligraphy to painting to garden pruning or, more familiarly, leaning on a garden broom doing nothing, and kite-flying - almost such scenes as Hokusai showed in the Mangwa.

Then we have a splendid series of the Hangchow lake scenery with the most delicate of color tints for outline and background; and a volume of strongly drawn scenes of mountain, shrine, wood, rock, cultivation and temple. Color is always used delicately in these books as light hint of tint rather than brilliant prominence. Original pale yellow and pale green covers, title labels. Mitchell, page ; Holloway, figure final figure of his book. First series, one volume. Fine copy with the original embossed geometric blue covers in good condition and also the title label, as described by Mitchell, page Bumpo lived from to in Kyoto.

Mitchell writes 'Skilled at landscape and figures, his fame was equal to that of Ganku and he occupied a position in relation to Ganku similar to that of Rosetsu in relation to Okyo'. Holloway describes and reproduces him amply. This fine album with its bold line and outline shows across double pages both peaceful and complex compositions, generally using pale color, sometimes semi comic or more often simply pastoral, and occasionally devoting the composition to a sprig of plum blossom or a bird on a twig of willow.

The colors are quietly and subtly handled, the range very wide. Hillier has a lot to say about Bumpo in his Chapter 11, page onwards, and reproduces rather inadequately several examples from this book. William S. Figure painted in black acrylic. Titled, signed and dated with pencil on sketchbook page. No gunshots. The five photos chosen for the work form a compact module directed toward livable and lived in spaces, houses for insomniacs. The text appears in blocks of varying sizes of type whose outline forms a border inspired by the drawings of houses.

From to , he produced more than photo canvases—landscapes of the outskirts of Barcelona— exhibited for the first time in at the Kunsthalle in Berne. In , he represented France at the Venice Biennial. His work, translated into German, English and French, is as difficult to decipher as his biography, a life he likes to invent through the course of his various interviews and encounters. His writing, infused with the Japanese aesthetic and photography, stands out for its radical minimalism.

Konstantin Grcic Born in Germany in His modular furniture, developed over the last few years mainly for Classicon and Magis, are among the designs that make him a major figure in contemporary design. Description: 5 original signed photographs chromogenic prints , set in photo-corners Case made of foam and plastic sheets 58,5 x 43 x 10,8 cm Text in Spanish and French Limited edition of 30 copies October Graphic design: Olivier Andreotti.

The effect obtained is that the image is both projected onto the wall and reflected in the plexiglass - hence disturbing the viewer's vision. The viewer is confronted with an inderterminate space which cannot be focused on properly. Cloth-covered board box containing one loose page as issued, with offset lithograph with one line of text, in miniscule font: "the philosophy of the one question".

Sticker with title and press on cover; numbered on recto. Published by Michael Werner, Cologne. Edition of 50 copies. Within the grid and beyond the pattern. Display copy n Every key of your keyboard on a page made with my own TypeFace Risograph printed on 90 grams paper spiral bounding , 70 pages Limited edition of ; signed display copy. Deluxe edition portfolio of only 10 copies consisting of compositions printed on gram Munken Pure uncoated paper. With these dots, 8 different embroidery stitches can be made.

A book without text, it reads easily, with work that displays some extraordinarily disciplined and dedicated research, placing abstract forms rhythmically with tremendous chromatic power and opulence. Each color combination in this book appears only once. Edition of only 10 copies. The sold out book was an Edition of Deluxe edition portfolio of only 10 copies consisting of compositions from the large-edition book of same title, printed on gram Munken Pure uncoated paper.

With these dots, eight different embroidery stitches can be made. When processed by the computer the stitches become lines and new graphic possibilities arise. Lines can be repeated or joined to form a longer line. Lines can be rendered with outline or without. Lines can be reproduced as form or as in-between form. Lines and in-between forms can be put on top of, one another in layers. Eight colors are employed in various combinations, with each combination appearing only once, generating 48 two-color combinations and 56 three-color combinations.

Four-color combinations yield 72 options. Signed and numbered. Hand sewn cotton leporello book, with screenprinting, in cloth box with colophon. Edition of 8 variants, with 2 AP. Each copy is signed and numbered. Each book is handmade from repurposed fabrics the artist found in Mexico City. She designed small buttonholes in between the panels so the work can be hung as a banner as well, choosing either side.

Pia Camil b. Hand sewn cotton accordion pleated leporello book, with screen printing, in cloth box with colophon. Each book is handmade from repurposed textiles the artist found in Mexico City. She designed small buttonholes in between the panels so the work can be hung as a banner as well, choosing either side for display.

This is copy number 3 Each book is handmade from repurposed fabrics the artist found in Mexico City. Carrieri was a leading photojournalist and cinematographer associated with the Italian neorealists. Carrieri spent time photographing in the suburbs as well as in the centre of Milan, focusing his attention mostly on the less glamorous working side of this hard Italian city.

Published by Achille Mauri Editore. Agnetti, encased in printed cardboard box. Thermoformed plastic multiple and accompanying booklet with text on the artist by Vincenzo Agnetti, encased in printed cardboard box. Published by Achille Mauri Editore, Milan. Overzichtstentoonstelling van sculpturen.

Limited edition. I : II : 9 folded plates. Traveling exhibition: Grenoble, Knokke, Rotterdam, Paris. Numbered copy, signed by the artist. Text in French and Dutch. Very good copy. Loose as issued in publisher's box. One of 20 copies on Japon Nacre, with frontispiece and the Justification page signed.

First American edition, with two original lithographs specially prepared for this book and with beautiful color reproductions of the artist's works. Illustrated are various drafts as well as the final versions of the 12 stained glass windows designed by Chagall one for each of the tribes of Israel for the synagogue of the hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center.

With 10 original etchings by Chagall. Loose as issued with slipcase. Book signed by author, artist and editor. Kornfeld Illustrated with etchings by Chagall. Folio, bound in original publisher's wrappers. Book Description: Paris: Teriade Editeur, , Paris: Teriade Editeur, , first Chagall edition, two volumes, number of exemplars total edition , printed on Montval paper, signed by Marc Chagall on the justification page.

The complete book with the Bible text, illustrated with original etchings by Marc Chagall; pp. In very close to excellent condition. Size of each book 18 x Publisher: Simon Kra, Paris. Printed by Louis Fort. This is one of 15 deluxe copies on Japan paper, from an edition of Numbered 4 on the justification with the drawing. Emily Charley An Album of British seaweed specimens , There is a full page poem about seaweeds which begins " The depths of the ocean, afford us a home, We ride to the shore on billows white foam" and is bordered by different types of seaweed.

Included is one specimen collected from the Potomac River dated and another is sent from a friend "Lowestaft ". It shows us that the owner of this book kept on adding to it over 25 years and has been cherished for many years. An early seaweed album excecuted with perfection and preserved in very fine condition. Translated from the French by John Spanton. First edition in English with the color wood engravings by Edmund Evans. Routledge first published Spantons translation in with merely one color plate, but for subsequent editions he had the present attractive blocked sunburst binding created and charged Edmund Evans to make color wood engravings not chromolithographs.

Most of the prints in the book illustrate the effects of neighboring colors on the appearance of a given hue. Because all the colors were shown in discrete relatively large areas, not overlapping with any other color, these illustrations were particularly suited to Evanss method of color printing" Friedman, Color Printing, n.

The text was first published in Despite Chevreuls authorization of the translation, the text is shorter and condensed than the first translation, but this is the first edition to include the plates and a chapter on military clothing.

Birren on Chevreul, pp. This edition not in Birren Collection, Herbert, or Indergand. The color woodblock printing is sophisticated, imitating accurately the effects of the watercolor brush. There are amusing devices such as turtles aiming bow-and-arrow at a spread lotus leaf held out by another turtle; depictions of ordinary life of the fishermen coming home with their catch; bold and excellent compositions of flowers and leaves in a remarkable number of colors; a boat party on a lake by the mountains; a bird flying into wisteria; a marvelous great kimono whose wearer sits at her calligraphy.

Jack Hillier, an authority on the art of the Japanese book, used the illustration of mountain pines on the cover of his definitive study on the genre Ehon. This is a superb copy, the printing particularly clear.

Thread-bound book; 26 illustrated sheets and three sheets of text; woodblock; ink and color on paper. Signed, with red seal. JH Mitchell, page This work by Chinnen must rank high among the whole large group in book history which illustrates the ordinary doings and customs of the day.

Hillier admires it especially: "Among the twenty-five double page prints are some of the masterpieces of Shijo in color print. Soft transparent pastel-like shades were employed and used broadly over areas sufficiently large to enable one fully to savor individual colors", and he reproduces several of which one can most enjoyably admire the double page of preparing nori seaweed. The colors are less brilliant than in the "Sonan Gafu" by the same artist but the effect is not less dashing.

Chinnen's books follow across more directly from one page to the next book. Original binding of silver printed over pale blue paper covers. Hillier Loose sheets in cream paper portfolio. This copy has a dedication and includes a drawing by Cocteau, dated , on the title page.

Unique screen printed book, 22 pages, all pages glows in the dark. The pages are overprinted with a layer of transparent phosphorescent paint. Phosphorescence's slow time scale of re-emission of light is associated with "forbidden" energy state transitions in quantum mechanics.

Turning a flash light on and off will revel the duality of the work like an x-ray. Unique screen printed book, 24 pages, all pages glows in the dark. A unique book featuring 32 original art works. Each piece is a screen printed monotype in which we push the boundaries of the serigraphy technique as well as experiment with forms, colors, layers and composition. It plays with a conceptual mise en abyme as well as refers to the textual whole of the work. Small 8vo. Original printed stapled wraps.

MARIA was privately printed by Cornell in an edition of about copies and given away to his friends as presents. The work was inspired by nineteenth-century opera singer Maria Malibran-Garcia and was produced with the same precision and care Cornell brought to his other work. It is in many ways a Cornell work in book form with the appropriation of text, the use of a decorative headpiece from yet another book, and dealing with one of Cornell's signature obsessions.

A twenty Page bond artist's book consisting of ten double page screenprinted color images, bound in a grey cloth cover and contained in a matching box, plus a separate copy of one of double page images screenprinted on two loose sheets. Each page measures The specimens are pressed on the sheet with a seperate letterpress card with Genera. This fine set is complete and in very fine condition.

Folio with 12 volumes of over nature-printed plates depicting plants of which the flowers are enlarged and handcoloured. The flowers of the depicted plants are drawn enlarged and are almost all handcoloured. One of the largest "herbiers" ever published and the largest nature-printed plant book ever made!

They give the actual appearance of the plants very accurately and the separate drawings of the flowers in colour are well done". With 12 color lithographs. In this trilogy Dali depicts Don Quixote, Cervantes' idealistic Spanish nobleman who fancied himself a knight fighting the world's injustices; he saw flocks of sheep as enemy armies, and served the causes of truth and beauty. It has been said that Don Quixote's quest was an allegory of the eternal search for goodness and truth, with an idealism that appeared to be madness in a world that sometimes viewed heroism and love as a form of insanity.

How interesting Dali must have found this satirical romantic! The play suffered terribly on opening night, but thanks to the ingenuity of the actor Frederick Lemaitre and some major revisions, it soon became quite popular. Frederick Lemaitre turned the character into a proud, confident, and devious swindler. For a whole year the artist kept a record of the different bruises — accidental she points out — she detected on her body.

She opted for close-up framing in order to reinforce their plastic quality. What they form appears to be sensual and abstract landscapes. We called upon Pierre Charpin because we felt he would be most apt at entering into dialogue with the artist and the author, being particularly sensitive to the metamorphic quality of their language.

The casing is made up of two shells in molded plastic that are fitted together with magnets. He teaches literature in New York where he lives with his family. In tandem with his limited editions, and prototypical studies, he collaborates with various companies as Post Design, Zanotta, Montina, Venini, Alessi… He was awarded Designer of the Year at the Furniture Salon in Paris Description: 5 original signed photographs chromogenic prints , set in photo-corners Case made of painted molded plastic 38 x 33 x 3,8 cm Text in Spanish and French Limited edition of 30 copies November Graphic design: Olivier Andreotti.

The book is a work of psychogeography, detailing a period in Debord's life when he was in the process of leaving the Letterists, setting up Lettrism International, and showing his 'first masterpiece', Hurlements en Faveur de Sade Howling In Favour Of Sade , a film devoid of imagery that played white when people were talking on the soundtrack and black during the lengthy silences between.

Credited to Guy-Ernest Debord, with structures portantes 'load-bearing structures' by Asger Jorn, the book contains 64 pages divided into three sections. The first section is called 'June ', and starts with a quote from Marx: Let the dead bury the dead, and mourn them The second section, 'December ', quotes Huizinga, and the third, 'September ', quotes Soubise. The work contains two separate layers. The first is printed with black ink, reproducing found text and graphics taken from newspapers and magazines.

The second layer is printed using coloured inks, splashed across the pages. The currently available history of Ottoman Turkish music—starting with the early 20th century publications of Rauf Yekta Bey—display an unreconciled mixture of mythos and logos. But either in its older prenational form, or in its newer nationalist guise, this story has little to tell us about what actually may have happened to music and musicians during the formative periods of Ottoman music.

Prior to the creation of the Turkish Republic in , this musical mythic history was a way through which members of Ottoman civilization understood their own past and their role in the world to which they belonged. Their understanding of cultural history was based not on actual musical documents—although these may have existed at times—but rather on a consensus among members of an educated group of musicians who were viewed as authoritative.

However, it so happened that the development of an independent Ottoman musical style and repertoire coincided with increased contact between Ottoman Muslim musicians, local or foreign Ottoman Christians, and Western Europeans. Both Latin Westerners and Ottomans belonging to the Eastern Orthodox Church were heirs to separate traditions of musical notation, which placed their understanding of musical history on a far more empirical basis than that of Muslims.

By the 17th and especially the 18th century, myth-making was not the only process at work in the formation of an Ottoman musical history—increasingly the field was cluttered with actual notated musical documents as well as new theoretical works, written in Ottoman Turkish, Armeno-Turkish, or Greek. See Feldman In the absence of widely used musical notation, sophisticated repertoires and performance techniques had to be preserved, transmitted and developed in each and every generation.

A single generation of neglect or experience of political or economic turmoil might spell the loss or erosion of generations of development. In certain Asian civilizations where the artistic music of a rather distant past had high cultural status, enjoyed the support of several segments of society, and may have used various forms of notation as an aide memoire, real continuity—even of specific repertoires over several centuries—might have been possible. Certain classical Chinese repertoires are examples of this process4.

Northern India from the 17th to the early 19th centuries shows a complex interaction of classical texts as well as older and newer musical genres and instruments Miner Within a liturgical context considerable continuity of repertoire and style was possible in post-Byzantine civilization, ongoing under Ottoman rule whose rather sparse notation was based on a continuity of oral transmission under the conditions of a centralized method of musical pedagogy in the church.

In the Islamicate cultures the sheer physical continuity of urban life did not ensure the survival of a particular urban musical repertoire for long periods, especially the sophisticated repertoires sponsored by the elite classes. In earlier times, in the Islamic Middle Periods, and especially in the post-Mongol era, artistic music held a position of some prestige over a wide geographical area. For these periods the sources sometimes allow us to view considerable continuity, development and diffusion of particular musical styles and forms.

Thus, despite the disruptions of the Mongol conquest, the ensuing Pax Mongolica and its aftermath in the successor states offered very favourable condi- 3 The concepts underlying this paragraph are indebted to Karl Jaspers , Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte , The Origin and Goal of History.

But, as is well known, puritanical interpretations of religion had grown in popularity since the 17th century in many parts of the Muslim world. In addition, European economic and then political expansion had gradually weakened the elite social classes on which artistic music had depended Powers In these latter periods and perhaps somewhat earlier, in some cases , even states that patronized architecture, painting and poetry may not have approved of, or patronized, artistic music.

Certain musical techniques, modalities, and tendencies in microtonal intonation, might well persist for several centuries, but Islamic societies after the 17th century usually lacked the political continuity, socio-cultural stability and cultural consensus required to preserve compositional forms, much less whole repertoires over a period of more than one century. The basic forms of male hospitality and social conviviality, plus the customs of entertainment within harems of the wealthy, ensured that these musical practices would always find both practitioners and audiences.

In time more sophisticated items might become simplified, and more rudimentary musical forms could take on a degree of musical and poetic sophistication. Even in the same generation, more or less sophisticated, more conservative or more innovative versions of the same musical elements such as modus and rhythmic cycle or musical genre might coexist within different strata of the same society. And—as some of the Safavid and Ottoman evidence suggests—small circles of elite musicians and their students might preserve and develop a sophisticated musical style without much official encouragement.

The erosion of older repertoire and compositional forms might actually facilitate the development of improvisatory playing, which was less dependent upon prolonged master-pupil relationships for the learning of complex 5 Within Ottoman civilization the Mevlevi Order of Dervishes became the most stable institution fostering the preservation and to some extent also the creation of artistic repertoire, only after the middle of the 17th century, principally in Istanbul and Edirne.

Under new social conditions these in turn might form the basis for a new kind of artistic music. As both John Bailey and I have noted for the musicians of the Timurid Baburnameh, the profession of composer musannif was recognized as distinct from that of a performer, although both might be combined in a single individual Feldman As a practicing musician, Bobowski documented much of the music played at the Ottoman court, while he also acted as a private music teacher, principally, it seems, for Europeans in Turkey.

In that capacity he created musical notations and written materials, which he never organized into a book. Nor can the situation described here in late 16th century Turkey and Iran be applied in this form to different societies such as India, for example. His musical talent was soon recognized and he became a court musician, playing the santur, related to the East European cimbalom.

Altogether he spent nineteen years in the court service. Thus, the commonalities of the two collections have tended to obscure the real musical differences separating the period from to , roughly two generations. In the course of this comparison I will attempt to interpret what this stylistic change may mean in creating a periodization of Ottoman music Feldman It is worth quoting part of his conclusion: religious and cultural allegiances were complex, and he was probably connected with the Calvino-Turk movement, seeking Ottoman support for Protestant opposition to the Habsburgs.

To this end he was entrusted with the translation of the Bible into Turkish, and the publication of the Geneva Psalm hymnal of into Turkish, with the original music arranged according to Turkish makams modes. See Judith I. Since then Dr. His famous History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire was written while in exile in Russia, but published in English, For his notations, see Wright b, and Feldman Despite the undeniable existence of many common elements, the evidence reviewed above indicates that the seventeenth-century Ottoman system differed from its predecessor to the extent that if the two were juxtaposed we would need to speak of musical diglossia, and given the brevity of the time span involved it is difficult to conceive that the idiom of the earlier court-music repertoire could have been relinquished at the earliest during the third quarter of the sixteenth century before the initial stages of the evolution of the its successor into a form recognizably Ottoman the process being completed at the latest during the second quarter of the seventeenth century Wright Alongside and in a certain sense beneath this one could well imagine the development of an indigenous Ottoman tradition of urban music-making, which would be characterized by its emphasis on Turkish texts avoiding the prominent panegyric strain of court poetry and, since it existed outside the patronage system of the court, would rely very little on the professional performer but depend, rather, on wider participation op.

But in the light of subsequent research—this statement from telescopes, as it were, a series of discrete musical processes that had occurred over a period of perhaps 70 to 80 years—most of what it describes was in place only after approximately or There is no evidence to show that the Ottomans viewed their musical situation in this way, and quite a lot of evidence suggests the opposite.

Persianate of the Eastern Islamic culture. Evidently local musicians were forced to search for local musical sources to combine with the remnants of the earlier international art music in order create a new musical style and repertoire. For Wright in it was a moot point whether this musical change was brought about primarily by the collapse of the earlier court repertoire, or by a cultural shift that rendered it somehow culturally irrelevant. While, as I noted as early as and more clearly in later publications , there were significant structural differences between the music created in the earlier and in the later half of this later period, there was no real break or lack of continuity.

The basic technical and broader aesthetic features of the music of the second half were clearly built on those of the first half of this period. That is, although the period from to witnessed the most rapid technical development in the entire history of Ottoman music— certainly surpassing the 19th century in that regard—these developments were never rejections of earlier musical practice.

Looking at the beginning and end of the broad era from to , the changes appear to be prodigious, but they probably would not have seemed that way to participants experiencing these musical developments. At no point in this later period do we see the radical break in musical conceptualization that underlies the theory of Prince Cantemir, and all theorists that went before him. His influence seems to have passed largely through his students, who were more involved with courtly patronage. See Behar For the Turkish musicians of the later 17th century, the crisis through which their music had passed less than a century earlier, and the heroic efforts made by certain musicians one or two generations before them, were still part of living memory.

By the middle of the 18th century the more conservative Ottoman view reasserted itself, as we can see in the book by Charles Fonton Evidently, having undergone the crisis of the later 16th century, Turkish musicians living in the 18th century, after a new repertoire and performance practice had come into a secure existence, and music was rather well supported, had no desire to dwell on the problems of the past.

To conclude, it would appear that factors were at work during the 16th century that prevented the entire musical system of the previous era to be preserved and transmitted. Thus, the earlier 17th century represented a period of both decline and innovation.

Stylistic Change Starting with the last third of the 17th century through to the middle of the 19th century, Ottoman Turkish music presents a picture of steady development, although the chronology of these developments is as yet unclear. They may be summarized as follows: 1 decrease in overall tempo, allowing for longer and more intricately ornamented melodies. The most evident are nos. While distinctions between related makams e.

It does seem clear that all of these latter instruments are on their way out, and indeed none of them will be played at court by the end of the 17th century Feldman This radical change in instrumentation was not based primarily upon technical improvements although those did occur as well. Rather it points to equally radical changes in musical style. Evidently they interested him less than pieces by his own contemporaries.

The lyric of the miyan utilizes similar topoi as ex. Henceforth, there is great difficulty in singing correctly the songs on an instrument because every author strives to compose songs at his pleasure with the meter and rhythms he likes, and because they are so intricate, those who do not know the meter cannot play the songs at all, even though they were to hear that song a thousand times Popescu-Judetz, All lesser forms are either marginal or excluded entirely.

Wright We will treat this issue further below. As I show in my book of pp. Even without notations, the vocal repertoire presents a very different picture. The most striking differences between them relate, rather, to the nature of the repertoires they contain. There is no doubt that Demetrius Cantemir was brought up as an aristocrat, a Moldavian boier and the younger son of the ruling Voivode.

If Bobowski ignored social distinctions between musical repertoires, it is doubtful that this was because his lowly social origin and current status in Turkey rendered him uninterested in them. Perhaps all that the performer needed to know was when, where and for whom each was appropriate.

It seems clear that the court of Murad IV, at any rate, allowed for a broad mixture of these different musical types. Did the order of performance depend largely on the tastes and whims of this musical but rather strong-willed sultan? It is not unlikely that its status as a composition by the venerable Osman allowed it to survive within the new musical conditions.

This chapter comments in some detail on the leading musicians of that court, on the instruments they mastered, and the repertoire that they performed and composed. Examples could be multiplied from several periods and regions of the Islamicate civilization, but they all point to the same conclusion, namely that once a distinct artistic repertoire began to be created, certainly by the 9th century, and a largely shared art music practice and repertoire came to be elaborated, eventually breaking up into a predominantly Eastern school in the Fertile Crescent, Iran and Transoxiana, and a predominantly Western school in the Maghreb and Spain, with Tunisia as the border territory between them.

In both regions there was considerable continuity in the theory and practice of music for many generations over a rather wide area of linked urban and courtly centres. Even the catastrophe of the Mongol conquest did not result in a major musical regression, as the new rulers soon proved to be avid patrons of music, and the Pax Mongolica provided enhanced geographical mobility for musicians.

Nor was a possible negative clerical reaction a major issue for most of the relevant courts, as the Mongol dynasties tended to exalt the position of art and artists in their service. A related issue is my eighth point in defining the Ottoman musical tradition— namely the ordering of all repertoire items into a specific sequence during performance, which is seemingly implied by the term fasil.

However, despite the near unanimity of virtually all modern repertoires on this point including those of Iran and Caucasian Azerbaijan, which almost totally lack compositions per se, but whose partly improvised repertoire items are grouped cyclically , the historical record is less easy to interpret.

It would appear that through much of the history of Islamicate art musics, various considerations in performance practice may, at times, have overrode the principle of strict cyclicity. Moreover, the medieval sources pay little attention to compositional forms, much less to cyclical arrangements.

At various periods and places in post-Abbasid culture the Arabic word nawba turn has been used to refer to a cyclical performance of composed items. Wright summarizes the situation in his article on Arab Music in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Wright b : A similar obscurity surrounds the emergence and evolution of the most extended form, the nawba.

In the 13th century, five constituent parts were reported, and in the 14th, three. However, it is clear that for most of the 14th and 15th centuries the eastern nawba consisted of a cycle of four songs, all in the same mode, and using a restricted range of rhythmic cycles By the late 15th century, however, it was evidently in decline, and soon afterwards it disappeared.

This would imply that by this time the technical usage—as an extended cyclical performance—was becoming obscure or even obsolete. It is difficult for us to interpret the cultural significance of the decline of the nawba cycle. In general it would seem that if the principle of extended cycles were falling into disuse, that would suggest a musical decline or erosion, unless a new principle came to take its place.

Cantemir himself gives no clue on this topic. Feldman Historical and Social Factors Turning from this close analysis of the repertoire and its musical terminology, we must ask the broader question: how can we integrate the musical changes we have observed with known patterns of Ottoman history and society? In trying to evaluate where to place the early 17th century Ottoman repertoire within some sort of historical continuum, there are only a few historical signposts to direct us.

The Ottoman rulers were avid patrons of music, as were some other Anatolian states. Musical lyrics at the court were still in Persian and Arabic, even though the rulers patronized poets writing in Turkish. The Ottomans were also aware of musical creativity taking place in the Timurid courts of Eastern Iran and Central Asia, which continued well into the later 15th century, and which became a kind of legend in Turkey. Thus, for the Turco-Islamic courts of Greater Iran and of Anatolia the 15th century was very much a continuation of the artistic including musical renaissance typical of the Islamic Mongol Courts.

From the 16th century it was mainly the Crimean Tatar Ghazi Giray Khan who remained and who was not an Ottoman by education. Thus, from the point of view of the later Ottoman tradition, not much of musical significance happened during the 16th century.

As usual his methodology is extremely precise and meticulous, and we cannot enter into it here in detail. But his conclusions are relevant to our questions about the nature of courtly musical life in 16th century Turkey. In comparing the 15th century and 16th century texts, he is able to arrive at some conclusions. In brief they may be summarized as follows: 1 The 15th century anthology shows considerable evidence of contemporary musical creation, along with some preservation of older pieces, although the nawba cycle is not fully preserved; 2 The 16th century anthologies show a complete breakdown of the nawba, and also highly variant arrangement of the verbal and structural elements in pieces bearing the same text and mode as in the earlier anthology—i.

But it would seem clear to this author, at any rate , on the basis of the references to Ottoman rulers, the Turkish names of some composers, and the use of Turkish in the margins, that the 16th century ca. The later 15th century ca. But even were it not, it needed to have been created in another Persianate court whose repertoire must have had many similarities with the one performed in contemporaneous Bursa or Istanbul.

The reasons for this oblivion are evidently two-fold: on the one hand the relative complexity of the earlier compositional forms rendered them unwieldly for the musicians of the later 16th century; and gaps in the process of transmission—probably due to lack of patronage or interest on the part of the court—prevented the newer generations from gaining access to the works of earlier composers. The instrumental repertoire surviving from this era generally shows a rather simple structure.

Repetition and imitation are fundamental compositional techniques. There are no developed melodic progressions. While we cannot always prove the correctness of the attribution of each item, the stylistic integrity of this group of pieces seems quite clear. The impression they give is of a kind of simplification, perhaps a folklorization of the repertoire.

This assessment would apparently correspond to the poverty of both transmission and new creation in the 16th century source. Perhaps by default—i. It seems that a number of musicians of Iranian origin took part in this Turkish repertoire formation. In time the taksim allowed for a new freedom in modulation and more developed conceptions of melodic progression. As I had noted in p.

It is by no means easy to account for this musical decline in Turkey, especially as it is not long after the era of the greatest expansion and wealth of the Ottoman state. Up until the very end of the 16th century the Ottomans patronized major poets in the Turkish language, to the extent that this century is regarded as the classic era for Ottoman literature.

Nor were the Sufi orders in decline. Several of them were influential at the court and also patronized music. The Mevleviye—who were still largely based in Konya—were elaborating their ritual and its music. In this era—when court music was still largely reliant on the pages educated at the court itself and on foreign experts, not on the more numerous musicians of the city as would become the case later in the 17th century—this royal neglect could have serious results.

The limited scope for art music in 16th century Ottoman society—a context in which musical education was mainly confined to the slave-musicians of the palace service—did not permit these foreign usually Iranian musical masters to effect a fundamental transformation of Ottoman musical life.

Despite the earlier development of music in some of the Eastern Anatolian cities in pre-Ottoman times, the shift of the political and cultural center to the extreme northwest of the country, far from the more thoroughly Islamicized regions of the east—first to Bursa and then to Istanbul—rendered the Ottomans more dependent on foreign, mainly Iranian, musical expertise.

We must also recall the depopulation of Constantinople at the end of Byzantine rule and hence the need for Sultan Fatih Mehmed to repopulate the city. The broad diffusion of art music among the urban middle classes of all religions, including the Muslim ulema which was to occur after the later 17th century, had not yet begun.

A major contemporary literary source offers some complementary information. The latter has retained its meaning as the general appellation for a folk song of Anatolian Turks. Thus we should not equate the situations of the mid- 16th century with that of the midth century. Thus, for whatever reason, by the middle of the 16th century Ottoman music making had taken a decidedly populist turn.

While similar informal meclis gatherings had also occurred earlier, what must have been new was that the older courtly repertoire apparently lost its currency even among the courtly elite in stages that we cannot easily reconstruct today.

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