The cysi cavih cau In. The cavity must be continually repacked as it contracts. Once cpittLeliaLisatLun has taken place the pack may be replaced by a rigid Fig. At this vl jg. In addition, it may be valuable to pack the nnutdLiry anlrum, tem- porarily, using ribbon gauze, This covers exposed hoilc add fti-i tl Jlll- Ujl sijk ol Ull hlmij du1 Jm3- lowing immediate closure.
This is also helpful if Miltl is drnahl as tu whether aU the pathological tifltue has been remold. An miranasal antrosiomy hide frnm the nasal cavity into the Sinus in the inferior meatus is performed and the pack it broondu frufrt the rrumth thniugb die latere] wall of the now into the nostril. Jiiiil I. FollOW Up. Advpe pitienth cimtLintng ibt! Jnulud- Eim pUc. Ihii Iiicul jiul'SI Mlhl th.
Ail ullipixuL uiciMiin is nLadc annflid th? TidLd M. Li an, HWfcnqri on! Ihc- points are then separated, forcing, the tissues apart ui uW natural plums. Agaan an elliptical inchmn is. Ir is important 10 take a. A similar technique may he used to unnrlr the L-iHitents nf superfielil lesions within bone cavities. The k-. Where t leiion Ijei wnhui deeper strut - luivx, hi Ek tpiporlarir hi renidnibi. Ji , dn?
Exatnptn include muJ icpaiib irf pigmEntiilnin. HnfcYVcr, ruiy nSd. Also, ik ill uibci buried icedt. A1 Ibis triage the horn; may be surg- ically reshaped lin aetlhelic purples Surgical interference during grtiwth lends to y-HM-. There are kvutu!
Mure dense hnne mny he jRvtciatcd with dilh'cuh extractions. Thri ,nndi kin aflecc [he mixilla more commonly chan du mandible. Oral dernrrnicy can be ueaicd surnj- ic ally if here is litmLfkatiit at sthetie w tuiittiona,! Allknijth ihey arr cwrpUdlh hunipi. R'KTHlffl Ht. A 2l-?? J pusEeniKr tbml ui the turtgue. Oinl aJ? Both of ntcst habits in wtdc-- spmd and iccounl for the rncracins inodence of rjiuudi obqd in ynunuj people In Asia, tnbacuti chowana.
Describe iKc jni-uiVnci! Dcsrrmtnt "he ureency of referral 'if ft patient with i iiMpii'ioui k! In the west inn. The Innger P patient survives a tiisi tumouj. Thtis oral eanecr is a SysLeniiL disease fmm an carry itage. A hener underscandma; of ihe panerns of inti-JSM. Ll o pinns Keconatrucliun Primary recoiutrucuon it now die rule, and ihis ia to the ureat btnrfii of patients. Earkr tcthiuquc? A cynical regime for an nml camnoma would be i totd dose nf W Gray given hy daily treatments on Monday io Friday nvcr a fc-week perind-The daily doie fraction is therefore only small and allows for repair of normal Lmuuk between Imalments.
This mueusbliH is very painiul and oral feeding is frequently impossible. The bone ls both Lschaemic and u ruble io remodel, resulting in nxtisoradiemeeRKas which frequently buenmes secondarily infected. Radioactive indium wires are the movi commonly uicd implants. There it i rapid fell-off of dote with distance, and riiL teehniejiic continuously iklivers very bigh- dose.
Intel irradiation with very little damase bti adjacent tismci. Because of this association, it has been axskemud lha. The -iirr. CW iqmly Rhim-jiJ i mfllifjHjn: nranf. K'i imnyrtarj! In fn. In any paricac prticnujii; for rtic firit Lime p idi iiTn iMiknTpkilqs. Jk wVcrcly Limita J. EE- riun ihnukl lead tci heJta ciuioiHi!?. Lymphnrjc mnuEra?. Ixnti- i 1 MKiiiEiniLiri. H cell iiiu; L. I imltnViAVT. J dJuoLbeiu. Attn ufriecriaah ur grtw irdcclJix din-.
HH ETHm. ITic inu. HflJ, I n a-,-ivi il. AiaUfihatp Vvbcrc multiple priniajy lumours arc pmcm h or if there is extensive premalignant change, surgery is 1Jil pjL'krrcd IrL-iEmcnl. A pohsibk ewepliiin, n th? Uoth turnery and radiotherapy are frcqutailly cmpluycd aitd arc highly cffcLlivr methods of treatment, each RiYirut cure rates of ibaut WN.. Itttfii SiLrgaiv is Ehe treaimertl or chiHcc ior early Icunni suitable for simple in era oral escLSiOEt, for tumours on the trp nf the tnngw, and for advanced dwHse [when su:y:cr;, shuitld he curtlbinL-d with padHjpef- inve roJicrlhurapyy.
Knr inlermL'dLiEe'-stage dusease surgery and radiotherapy have similar outDomeb. Any Innpiu eareinorjin uvcuedinf 2 cm in diameter requires at the very least a hemielos- WLlomy. Alcuxx is bat via b lip split and rrundibulntomv. Hirfjicf of the tongue and the lower afaeo- I Lid ai a relatively early htage.
Therefore surgical i-i. Small tumours: of Jil ISlilit nf ttic rmnith thai du not sJiuyv dcim irdiLlrttiufl can he treated by simple Tffritfro. As thew eatentive tumours haw n high incidence of nodal involvement the resection must be under- taken m continuity with an. Aocen is achieved via a lip split appf. Now dial the pallerrb of Kmc invasion axe bcttxr understood, the continuity of the inaudible can LillcfL he presLTViJ by perform- ing i majaiinal rebL-etion. Several technique! Provided thefe is a good soft -tissue cover to the graft, kbuId can be wry saLislaclorv; aLthLHigh il is Uiflieull to reconstruct the chin prominence with this tech- nique, Hnync and Leake have advocated the use of cancellous bone from ihe ibum packed into flush trayt, preformed to match the resected pare of the nundibk.
Tht early Dacron txavs did not prove successful, but the titanium trays currently avail- able give excellent results MicruvasLular Eissut transfer is currency favoured for immediate mandibular reconstrtic- Llwi. The radia] lore-mm llap with suit tiss. They iruiy llInli Jiprcud upwards in soft tissue 10 involve the pterygo- mandibular spuci:; this l-jci be difficult lit detect clinically or radioJogkally. Small detects can ofte n be reconstructed with a maaseter or tfrnpyralix muscle Hap.
Ljihet defects are beft recoruiifucicd with a free radial forearm flap, which can be made to conform very well to the shape of the defect at this skc. Lied by a partial inasilkctOniy. Tv u, ortc is small and postoperative radiotherapy is essen- tia I.
Following mamillary resection the resulting cavity should be skirt grafted to ensure rapid healing and O prevent crmtracture at Ihe overlying soft IisSUtK. Once the diagnosis haa been confirmed, die besi hope of cure is provided by die widest rv--ihli. There is no evidence char chemotherapy is of sitnilii. Occasionally, particularly in young pstkru, bilateral neck dissection cm be justified. Must ohen piistiipennisv radiu ihiT.
Trcalmenl is mnsl dlcn hy exlfmal ndkilherapv. In a few younger patients widi resectable pnmajk-s. Nodal metastasis appear hie. Htflh ]. Lpndtai: LW. HlMbihicrC H. Juimlc-vwTHr 4! What is the rok of the- dental practitioner fol- kminft trefUment far onl cincer? What art the principal drawbacks surfefy. PreprostheGie surgery is a wrm used for surg- i. Enduaieouja implants may be placed in suitable portent f Hi uoptun rtiv stability and retention of dcmiifrt. Consequently, it is important io preserve ihe pcrMnteum anJ lI:, hJnikl supply whirnfVCT pnss- ibk, to minimise the risk ofisetuemie necrosis of vinLli'rlymg hone.
In a few cases, oral dba- oimfnrt may hp attributed Eli Ihe mennpiiuhe, and he symptoms may resobv after hormone replace- ment therapy. Il in thca-fim: iinpiu lii::l U. The janvsare enmpnsfid id atvEular and haul bime. In rht maxilla and m the mtmac asfiLfcr. A dcucurc ttusc LhrHfbti hi well f i rj iimi tn thi! Classification of the edentulous jaws t :uh i. Miih fi;ncr. Thr IphiaL pud: bweaj wki bjt? A iju-niJ Li-p-h. I — [i Jrtlllai' r? T i,1? IjirgtT Imcii: li mir. I, A corm Pip If ihcrc it.
Hjidiitftmpris trt taken before eucmon of i lnriji Ui examine IU rtuirrtholdgy. Ah aetyjii pawum splrrtt is fLthriiUed. If ill. A surgirtl flai hKF. After ffcosiwal at iht cfeorvi bonx. Mini are bmed tin i cyliridrifa! Auw 1m hti irnpl. ITitft is. F-'of s. Ii :t,. An jLtvIk Merit-. Bcnm pirnitTmLirin an dicneforc be nrnetonsuininp;.
HV,2 irnpUm J. I l-i t. After ir. Thin mlII reduce lew mk of wound deJirtcenrc. A fottuWrUf. FufdlLl dis. Fracture nf un impLcnt may occur, uhjoUv in tnpcnw 1o nKhkirc kindmp Ihv r. AJlII K. AJcll H. Lwh i Hk miiTlii rjl -rSii. Ellrt K.. I J, pp. Wiidrrrp H T. In general. Him Ji. What ftctisra miy iaftiKitct the sikw of endkweout implants? Hill 0, W. Some cases can run be created simply by onno- Uintk? Organise bask osteotomy investigations in the dime and labta-dlory 5.
Explain Id patients the basic ostcommy pfDceehiKi LneJudkngj the if indications, man- ajBement, risks- and complications. It h- essential. Tht urtrodanticJCir. Careful monitoring of the eruption of the denti- tion r essential and the general dental practiikmer w best equipped to perform Thb taak. In lomc cues fcjf. In general terms- the rationale for removal of uneropiLd. Copyrkit There is some evidence thai timely extraction of dendunixs tevih may pnpfn!
Lpfjer imprieiiiin, par tkularly in the case of upper canines. Hl' J. Intracirn] view 1! MJili iitL't i. Surgical technique ] ;. The hurvched. All L-ruflcl 1 x-. The defect ts, thcic- h -T':. Lbiiiif Jnd h. Q bt Applied.
If iht ucldLthiriL i. Mil l. ELLL'd uitly he rL-nlLnxd if lllim: are L-luuua] indications inleeriiin, ihtfy me obstructing eruption of other teeth, tic. Fraenectomy Fracneaomy lliu s-uru. Tht edmiqui: ia usually per- tnrxned d' rhe rraL-nLim. Hurt: are differing surgical Hi. LJndcjr tn;a.
Patienu are imrmaLly revicvucd m i T days. Lingual fratnecTomy ljng. Since sudi nni- Ei.. A genuinely diminutive mandible is probably bellui referred Ih? The Lower incisors tend to be retrcMdbied and [he upper birisnrs pnidined, although they arc also less vitibk on smiling. In addLllult Iw [he irtL ir jhl'J hnniumlal length nt' [hi!
This vertical uxctss can be wry variable and lis manage men1 may be addressed hy either mandibular shortening or maxillary impaction ouetHomka. It is also possible to have a normal skeletal base jl la. This is caused by the failure of the chin to develop in proportion to the skeletal discs, excess development being tefined prvftniu and underdewkipntent rtimgctria.
An inadequate depth of bone between the apices of che anterior teeth and the base of the mandible h! The opposite cmiiiilio In Inrm [ht maror part. Ji-[vnJLi3l iMl. Any relevaM medical o. Frr rampL, l. I ui-Jl pi. Til 4n. HLI : ii'. Tlie latter are only necessary for cnmple? The Ljc Furl I osteotomy is a versatile pnttce- dure, whkh can be performed at different levels above the apices of the teeth, entering the nasal cavity at the bast: or higher up on Oil lateral wall.
Anlennrlv; IIsl fli. After nuihilKing the fractured buries, as in mandibular osteotomies, an acrylic wafer between the upper and Inner teelh k tumid be mtifd uith. Tike pdTKtti kn Fig. This pptipqi m Pig. It belps. Disruption nflhu m. In the maxLHofacial region it is alio necessary tu timsiJuT 1he rNvvMhibEy that there mas tv itinirj to the hasu of the skull, tramal xatili and brain! Increases Ld viol l ml c Iuivl bmi caused by numerous jjjctnrt, including luw levels of social control of young people in families and in Ihu work pEucL , uiicnuF'liiyiiiLiil.
Ehc dL-VLhipanenl of a drag culture, and more leisure time. The management of maxillof adal trauma Msnogenwnt of the acutely injured pmknt The management of the acutely injured patient in tbir accidff nl and L"mure. L:nuy departmrnl dtrpyndx on organised, well practised teamwork, under ihe direction of a team leader.
However, whenever a Kciuuxly iniiirvd, perhaps unLOTisCinua patient is encountered, die presence -if a cervical spine Ltii ury xbLiuld he assumed until proved nut til l-xiM and neck movements- should therefore he kept to j. Ohmim- btceJinsi should he con- trolled tmng pressure, wiTe lijyrtir.
Where there it. Tu suppurE Ebc eircublLort, the insertion of the largest possible cannula into an antecubita] mri is usually the beu option foe intravenous infmion. AJthough it is not usually necessary to record the cause of injury in detail, a short summary in always helpful.
An uvicnird. Often dental Burgconi are asked to see the injured person ifitr their genera] condition has been ttabdiacd. Il u J mistake lii blami: pcitfJ Ic for their injunci just bccau. Nevertheless, it a I ditto I abusu is Jo ht? LiiiiL 1 inltutiL-atEiin. Clhixffow Icm. An enor- nniKps uimiLint l. Abrasions Fig. Lcr-i'brLiii[iaaiil Jluid.
The [lietli. KhLruld be l burled. MilI Mm. F ii; -Li;,,ru! Tnnthci nHiitittLvdJ with itt wtihoui ktm-aJ tauthu- wmj? ILr:-, IraL- lurrt I im- " n-. Iil: 'ii Operative pnn. Ln und mmLmJflj p? Ftbc tunes of die ascending ramus and condyle of Lhtr mandihk Lire: uLmost always of I hi.
Ail intra- tapsular fructute? Fractunrs of the condyle may be reduced and fated using mini-plates or traosfboon screws and the approach may be intraoral or extraoral. With miniplatcs, intermaxillary JnuEinn is usually not required Infection unci muxilhhdLeiij] Jracture-s Although most maxillofacial fractures are com- poeinJ mill fL-umm.
I mucus j. KLC tu[u. Ftipnnils nl glau, wood k road grit and gun pfOjiectiJei can ufien he iderLtified uwrvg radmnrnphs Cnpimm im- gaiiun can be used to flush out multiple mull frasmerLts. Support It h important nut io separate the physi- cal effects of trauma from [be psychukigiLal effects: ihe luii arc ultL-n interlinked and rnrnnr physical symptoms such as lack of ordinary seniajuun in the lip can.
Exposed dentine should he dressed to control sensitivity and present lost of vitality. Uh thermal father than electrical pulp testers: pulp ncuclinns an be misleading; in the acute phase Monitor pulp vitality closely bin fcntombtf that uon- respondiiuj teeth may re Bed neumlngLeal Tlther than pulpal injury.
Hraclurcs, of lhc eomnaL third of he root 4if n aindc-rooied Tooth usually necessitate extracuuti. RrhahLlitntion may inclydk ihe need for the serv ices of an ophdulrak- optkian to replace apce- laeLcs mi conlacL Lcnies ur pruv-ide 1h?
Medicolegal management PncTiihinws who utii patients with facial injury are often asked to provide factual statements aJbnut the mjunes and. All practitionera who treat patients vi i L 1 1 [tiu. M - KiJcIbihI ]. K , E-"hirci HA. Oamiv P. Vud L, ShLiiici d J. Hem' may EiEiannl mspectian help Ln ihe du. She appeal bstten. D Langdon Sal Ivor. Differentiate on chnkal pounds bcrwecn. Kni ur,. I he ileraiKjluidHimasttnd muscle.
Submandibular gland Hie submandibular gland wnws. ITil - li. L iimples. Up to 2i small ducu open directly m the Hoot of the nwuth- Seme open directly into die submandibular duct. The imfinHii ij! BffffllS mUHitlv newhoni uifanh an J dn. Ipepimtid jdinttU iFjg. Ultrasound imaging ihmra the. If the gland becomes fluctuant, indkarins abscess formal ion, the pus must tie drained. Thii then preunu in the lubmandibular region as a Kuttner tumour the word tumour being used in its literal unit u a lump and not as a neoplasm.
The onset is usually between i and b yum. Thc djagntno is based tin the characteristic history and is confirmed by sialog- raphy, which shows a very characteristic punctate siaJectasis often likened to a snow storm against t dark night iky Fig.
Hitf-Jti ihii parirar develops mi dcuif parotitic usually after 24 iMurs. Lur- i. It n tctb nab? As ihej" trc omrotri painful if b! JllJ ibu MWe! A pirotii Sfrnnt S. J toijucLkhi Li utinuT flm. FsjS- l5. Miibly alto duL- m an ikmiTji -. Apart ironi dewnMiuliiiK the presence of a space- i. Ultrasound scanning is a readily avnitahfc, inexpeiKive and rum-rnvwuv; [echnkjuethai is. Huwcvcn if thenr is overt s km mlillratLoii '.
I'm tcirnniirs of he minor salivary glands, particularly in ihe p. Attbnugb advncar. Epithelial tumours i. Tumours artang in th? In the Cliniul ii. II had j inaledcmale fatin u! Hutfiirtr, rt gunA-i extremely iluttly and. T B Reid.
In ihc paTiifiiJi sJu3id, u'veisii-vi-i w t'-v l- ith-jr -. TV bat iremmcW O. Salivary eland lymphomas usually present as firm painless twL'lLinjpi and more than "W'. Nn peatmcnl is fcnnwn. Shnrdy there-after he noied that Lhcsc symptuins frequently. TyfMiatly rsiicnts are middle aged. The presendnjE complaint is usually nf iIk unelertyinE cnnni?
OuiasiontJly there is LTiuU'gcmehl uf the parotid glands hilaterally and more rarely thj? SuperirjfLctiun vtilh. Mikulicz syndrome In Mikulicz described benign, asympto- iullI it, symmetrical! The rami common causes of xerostomia, in order of frequency, urn: 1. Many drugs haw been implicated in causing JcerostLimiu as un undesirable sLJe effect. Furthermore there has to be some remaining ftmctitnio. En normal health this is rprely noticed as 1he excess saJm is swallowed spontaneously.
UnptmimllaHt; drouling is uiudrj- treuled - i. Okmwt M J,. Ewwn J. In L anf. Ml HO WO. HcH, Mcflurt. What are the Jike. It it ncLcuuiy hit the il l' In he nhle- In n. Ai a mult dental lyrnptDms and antral symptom can mMt each other. Maxillary suiusHis in usually related Il'i impaired :inirjl drainapjc'. I 'i l ivi i "IimJv Stjrrw Hid symptoms, of cinutitit Symptoms of acute sinusitis usually appear a few days after the acute cold lyrnpionu haw muktid.
The pain a dull, heavy, thnih4? Hnwicvrr, kaninK the head backwards reduces conKesuon, Clinka! TransilIumiciariun, using j tnrrti xhime fram inside the mouth, may demon- unce annul congestion hut this is a rather crude test and nuy foil tn dececT umnun. A 'fluid level 1 may represent i collection of pus, although. OpadCwn due CO p. Much useful inJiirmaliiin can he gathered hy endusenpy nf he antrum. The extraction of deciduous teeth does not present a rut due to the relatively small size of ihv antrum tn children and the presence of the developing oermaneni teeth.
SimLlaily, if then is a hiFtory of difficTili, estne- tiom, dve perhaps m hypercemencotis or denw hune, there may be an increased risk oftuberwiiy frwiwre Oroantral cornmunication and fistula An oroantral ccMnmimKtoon OAC it an. Llli-ud pWBitftl.. J t[wnr:ii:. OAC, produnnn hubbltv ml blood w wibva. Tt' J mwnperimWiiJ Hup w raised irs. HecauM [hi! Treatment iil'tlAl! However, early surgical closure is nv nmmenJed whe never pussihlc as ]L is difticull m I". A alfOtlft, preferably iloji- rcsLitbabJc, sutvie malcfia] should beehtneil!
HowcvWi flier? Jium the tcingue ca hnccfll pod uf lal j and tjulbng are alsn possible. The upilbulium lining 1hu biliila Utm. A broad-based three-Bided buccal mucope- ii. Ttit cfhLhdu hmtig i. Ir should be I Dili; uniugh tnr Ln. I -i r- hl.. Thu riik js particu- larly hijili w u-n an etevnti. En general Lientil piiKcsif. As an idttrrm- tive, consideration should be given to possible removal of small roots by LiLdi. The defect is closed by jdvojiLiug a buL'. CaMweilhLne bpttwdtm Fig.
T luTLljjn btx3h. A hufiLiuniaJ iheiKKMl is nude In the huceal sulcus from the upper lateral incisor to the upper lint midar and a niucuperiaaleal hap if. How do thene difFeT from thwc ff chronic si nui ten? Puipal pain. That may jid dalJcicEjiin Ersim jiain. Musculae pairt may he ckarly IcKaliscd Ui a "fuser pcunt' centred in one muscle e. Thexr tichkcn shtniLJ be dearly dtsrinxuhhed from clkking-Type noises 43 they alrrunt cefuinly represent different aspects of disease.
If a majority of penplp whn have a ulkking't'. However, these valuea should be used with caution, as some normal people have measures outside this range. Lower limiu for theie meas- ures are approximately 7 mm- Some a-HowMKe should be made for variation in incisor relation- ship nnd far age nr fxniily size. As far as disease is nHiLrmed, thus vbnuLd allow. It ii the cue with 1cm- poromandjhuJaT disnrden thai disease is dclincd in 1erm.
Tr should ncvi he surprising. That there [? It is dear, however, I hit some distinctions l. Young aduH patients do present wilh pain, iiiukI' Icndcrncss. It 11 difficult tu see these three 'pure" lorins ai pans ur the ume one disorder, althoiudi 'purr' furrm are relatively uncommon.
Ibere is also evidence that these disorders do iiMcrael wilh eareh other ui some patimb and MM praccLLiytitri believe thai theft b 1 vtrong element! At [he ullu-r csEicrtic [hen: is a. Musckt are pi infill! Spetdk tender spots i'trigger points may he fcound in indnidual miasdes. Occasionally the condition appears ui a seien; fnrm nf rapid nnse. I Tie cause! Thu jm-nnMMtfTic? Hf Diviui rf rite mw ft - Arikiilu raiJiiiaiLe.
UuniiaCin v. Tbii mfuns rhaL the KHirrtnr rictp" iiHbi. Ill i Hupam. U [ prMJiuhlv 'Vih! MEU ih. KC iiia'zi-Nunui. CliLltv dui uo. It nay on 'xesskon. Ii-jli i. En Inddnfl. LinijEaiLon of mmcnveflE. Ml; m mm nf demal ucicmtni, jhhniiLm wmKvnm i. Beware, though! Et ta pamble, by repeatedly attempting dental "kiturioiH where none will hring relief, to reinforce the patient's beiefthat thia ia t denial condition und ihat the practitioner it patently inci-.
Three seatjbuc4I rules or guidelines on chronic racial pain may be of help: 1. Pain present fnr mure than one year, deipite reasonable efforts a: diagnosis and treoirnenr, ta unliiely ro respond to local rreotment now, 2. COmirigl in mtiltipJe' short bunts, usual h- Ori light tuucb or gentle stimulation of a stun, ur mucnsal surlaLL - a.
I r iltu-j r. L'Itltl may he aker-pam. EtadiLifrL-ujufnLy ksinrcs. It b also treated with vimpk- analgesics Lit many sufferers. Thefe n a icvei c rasruhtiv whidi. Rtfenrvd pain OL-caiiLinally pain m the fai. It is bqtmd die uupc of ihis bouk to deal in ikiiil with nil rkissihlL!
M, I l-? I'jn 1- minipmral jn. J , Quij-k A A. T, Mini G. B trat A in of ri 'l-. Mildief A. Zarb C A. N'cill t:. Uriifh rvniid jk-uriMl There in evident local dentil dm-ji,!? IjluI pod? DnL-ribc lnvcstifaliLnrui that wnuld help Lu dinLy dtt nature of i particular disorder.
EtLll upward, nrwin] ind nwiJijdk. Ir a unpunul, lifter the taul iitai? W pmdl dhtwtl tm rlv piKi,'n.. Jintrninnl dim i h. I urEti-cr In imgHliing. This is pushed upward, iim. A iub- mmilihular im-uim for KOm to the rvmdylir necfc 5. Surgical approaches to the TMJ Fig. Ttui rrlatLvLLj lar plane gn-es access dt its upper end to the tern- poraJLs fascia and through that to the root of the zygcmuhL areh. The disseelkm n'tnains uhnsf [h? The jnmt capsule is exposed from a posterofiuperior aspcci, The appfuach b relautdy Himpk- and, pnnuJL-d one retnsfe the temptation to d inert too close to the externa] auditory meatus which is directed tnrwjids as M rxtcrtdN inward;, die nskt arv smaLI.
Once bone a reached at tlie lower border of the mandible, dtnecbon it continued at a sub- periusieai pLane upward tu Use enndybr nts;h. Hmveirtr PcreH is itiH noi good. Ibeac hare included entering the ininl posteriorly, through the external ear canal, or by a skin innsion hehind the ear, folding the whole ear forward. These may improve the visible Rcarrina. Acceti [o die condylar neck may be gained by an inuHiun puxEenuf Cu and nearly parallel wQh 1he pnstentir border uf the ascend- ing mundihular nmih, wnh disseccmn rafcen Through parotid to masseter muscle and thence to die mandible.
A smooth instTU- merit, inch as n Howarctfs. Disc repOtUiatung surgcTy carries a reasonably high rule uf success in terms nf pain re kief, but dieting frecnjently ntvmt. LurseHjeuafttiy il must be removed. The fascia tends to be rather thin and if a subsiaji- tiaJ muscle flap is brought down into the joint thete tends to remain an aesthcEic dtfcci ai trie lempk. Repeated use of depot steroid prepariuonfi can cause sijpiifcant bone resorption and thercfunr m best avoided.
NOW hat thrte is good evidence 1liat degener- ative iuent disease aiTectina heTMJ tends to have 9 limited period of activity, after which it tends to resolve, lis? Where a systemic or local arEhropBihv has uairwd sigjnilicml bone luss and a TuductiMn Hi condylar heighi n an anterior open biw can resuli. Dislocation of the TMJ Dlagnos-ls Dislocation of a joint is a displacement of one tutiipniiL-jH uf the poiiir beyond ita oar trial bctuts..
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Whan ft the- most Likely diagnosis? Should a liUtjiciil approach be considered? His inierincisaJ opening b 23 mm and can nm be increased hy linger pressure Lift the kTwer teeth. Opening docs noi seem limited by pain. Should n surgical appmaeh be ci mNLckre J r 4, ir disc displacement without reducrlon were considered as a diapmeos vvtuit Lnvnugationx might clarify' the condition?
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Ad well as identifvinn: the disease some attempt shnyld rv made to assess its sn'untj 1. Direct enquiries about whether the [Hlwn! Fit the severity of congestive hean failure or fen severity uf eardmpulinonary diseise. A chronic COUgh ii usually prcscnl, and the i liability tu clear I he mucus from the lune; slrueturc-s rnulCx m frequent sreundary inJctiLons nnd may be asiwMalcd wiUi emphysema.
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Although dK congenial coafula- MM dcfcils J p: usuaJIv iJu:i I Med when die history is taken, seme others may only be revealed during die examination or suspected from the history eg, secondary to liver disease. I "he treatment sJuiuLd be underlakcn in hiixpilal. Problems can anxi, 1 postoperatively because of imtElittrke -. Mill Hi. Hjiid ii. It ie. TTle severity of these disorders should be noted when the palicnl a hrsL examined and a history u taken. Problems with mnbilirji' might well interfere with the patient's ability to seek advice rcium to he practke if problems arise after surpkal txeamuEit.
These potential restrictions mum Ll- cLmsiderrd whirn sundry in? Outpatients with these disorders usually take htSAID's. Thc poisihihty ul anaemia and interfer- ence wish preoperative hhtmrnatk raun be tikefl wily apcnynl, In addition, patients with M.
Many patients ire well controlled but ire ttkine a variety of med- il j'iulLi i iiLL uf which eg. A patient widi Parkinson's disease may appeat express id tdess and be uocommunicaiivt. It a impnrtant hji the tnealmeut is diHUwed with the carer at well is the patient - the patient may be upvzt and jreuuui ]E he or she is n.
H apparently involved in the debate. There may be postural prohleiit! Patients may well he hypertensive i'1his dinuld he investigaEed and hast other features of drdkwaicuJaj drseiKe; they nljy kvI] jJmi bt' uA anticoagulants. In more awff cases n ft preferable xe arn 1 uul surgery in huspiLal. Drugs Many puienTS bk raking prescribed rnedic-Htmn! Tnfnrcnmnn a bow dnigj. The riming of food fur the Lnsuam-drpundfni diabetic is critics!
This is easier tn menitnr nn an inpatient basis, 2. General arjaesEhcsti ihvkyn tames a sm al I nsfc of mortality. I sometimes takes middle path for questionDiscuss the extnet to which you agree or disagree with opinion expressedPeople Often complain that products are not made to last. They feel that making products that wear out quickly wates both natural resources and human resources. What they fail to see is that such manufacturing practices keeps costs down for comusimer and simulate deman.
Which do you find more compleling : complain about product that do not last or response to it. Some say one side MUST be taken and others say one can take the middle path, giving qualified support to both the sides. And this has confused me a lot. Could any one tell me what is the right approach? Well , it depends on the topic. If you feel middle path is correct then take middle stand.
Generally, the topics given by ETS are such that they will compel you to take a side. In the second of the two posts, you say in general you should take a stance. Didnt you contradict yourself? I dont think Ive contadicted myself. Perhaps this next part is confusing: I am of the belief that one should discuss both sides of an issue.
Discussing both sides of an issue doesnt necessarily mean discussing both sides equally. And in the second post: The first rule is this: You must follow directions. If it says choose one, then choose one. If it says discuss both and choose one, you must do that.
In general, though, you must always take a stance, and notsit on the fence. I hope thats clear and doesnt need any explanation. But, to summarize my opinions: I believe it helps an essay to discuss both points of view however, I do believe that the essay must overall argue one view over the other, even though you may see merit in the opposite view. Again, these are just my opinions. The person who reads your essay may not agree with me. While I agree that employees should not allow their personal lives to interfere with their jobs, the speaker fails to consider that integrating personal life with work can foster a workplace ambiance that helps everyone do a better job, thereby promoting success for the organization.
Engaging coworkers in occasional conversation about personal interests and activities can help build collegiality among coworkers that adds to their sense of common purpose on the job. Managers would be well advised to participate in and perhaps even plan the sharing of personal informationas a leadership tool as well as a morale booster. An employee feels valued when the boss takes time to ask about the employees family or recent vacation.
The employee, in turn, is likely to be more loyal to and cooperative with the boss. Company-sponsored social eventspicnics, parties, excursions, and so forthalso help to produce greater cohesiveness in an organization, by providing opportunities for employees to bond with one another in ways that translate into better working relationships.
Admittedly, employees should guard against allowing their personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers. Excessive chatting about non-business topics, frequent personal telephone calls , and the like, are always distracting. And romances between coworkers are best kept confidential, at least to the extent they disrupt work or demoralize or offend other employees.
By the same token , however, employees who are too aloofsharing nothing personal with othersmay be resented by coworkers who perceive them as arrogant, unfriendly, or uncooperative. The ill-will and lack of communication that is likely to result may ultimately harm the organization. In the final analysis, employees should strike a careful balance strike a balance when they mix their personal lives with their jobs. Although there are some circumstances in which bringing ones personal life to the job may be counterproductive, for many reasons it is a good idea to inject small doses of personal life into the workplace.
Ive read thru all of yr posts, i also get confused that whether i shld strike a balance or encourage one point strongly. Anyboy can help me in this topic? However, bcos of recent developments in technology, the international community shld consider replacing the entire system of coins and paper with a system of electronic accounts of credit and debitsDiscuss the extent to which u agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above.
Anybody can recommend your point of view? Because im thinking that computerized payment system is very useful in this century,hence it can be replaced the coins and paper system but someone may argue that how can poor people use the automatic system since they do not afford a PC in order to make transactions, and the idea of cashless world is unrealistic.
But im not so confident in my writing. Many investors base their choice between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields to the dividends available on common stocks. A between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields to B among bonds and stocks on comparisons of bond yields to C between bonds and stocks on comparisons of bond yields with D among bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields and E between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields with SPOILER: Ans: C Should we consider bond yield the same as stock devidend?
To my understanding, comparing same class of things use with , while comparing different class of things use to. Please help. You can think yield and dividend to be similar things here. I suppose thats one way to think of it, although this is not the traditional way to explain it. Compare with : To evaluate things relative to each other for example, Im thinking of buying either a Honda Accord or a Toyota Camry, so Im comparing each with the other, trying to figure out which to buy.
This meaning is much more common. Compare to : To say that one thing is like another thing, often to try to explain what one is like, but sometimes as an insult for example, My friend didnt know what a pomelo was, so I compared it to a grapefruit. Then she was able to understand what it was. This meaning is less common. Whats the difference between comparison and comparing? Or generally, when do we use a noun, when do we use a gerund?
Most of American high school students claim they know how to read , yet many of them can not do so at a high enough level to participate in modern society. It almost sounds correct, but its hard to explain why, dont you think? Anyway, we have the same problem here as we have in this sentence: Most of people in the U.
This sentence should read: Most of all people in the U. We have a rule in English that says we need to use a determiner in this position. Should I say:All of the peopleorAll of people. Butallis not a determiner. So how is this form correct? To Aivoges question, I think the first one is correct gramatically although I have never seen its usage because its of the formquantifier all of determiner the noun.
What do you think of this Erin? I must confess that I havent seen that expression - most of the people. Erin, can U tell explain it to us plz? Most of all people Most of people Almost all people Are they all true, is there any other structures with almost or most?
Thanks a lot. Of course , the answer is B in which. But this means D is correct. Object is uncounted noun??? If not, is this sentence wrong? This is a very common mistake a lot of people think that some must always be followed by a plural noun. This is not true--it is very easy to use a singular noun after some as we see here.
And you know what? The funny thing is that we all already know this. Think about the words or phrases someday , someone , some year --they all have something in common. Can you figure it out? They all refer to a noun that is unidentified , i.
Heres a very common example: Some guy called you while you were gone. In this case we use some guy because we dont know who it is. Hope that helps. Thanks a lot , Erin. I just read the explanations about holmess question,but I didnt get what word should be put instead object? Thank u!
We need to changein whattoin which. I have undergone the answer now. I also understand other questions, for example: Some friend kicked me while I was reading some books yesterday. Object is uncounted noun? SOME used with singular countable nouns to refer to a person, place, thing or time that is not known or not identified: There must be some mistake. Hes in some kind of trouble. She won a competition in some newspaper or other. Ill see you again some time, Im sure.
People complain about all kinds of things about the test and the test-taking situation. People say that the price is too high, its too long upwards of four hours, total time in and out of the test center, the conditions at the test centers are not conducive to doing ones best, and, well, it just doesnt always represent how well youll do in school once youre accepted.
Non-native speakers are especially vociferous in this last complaint. If youre one of these people, I strongly suggest that you send GMAT an e-mail to complain about anything you dont like about the test. Believe it or not, they do listen to you, and they most certainly want to secure their monopoly on B-school admissions tests. My biggest gripe with the GMAT, however, has to do with something quite different.
As a test prep instructor, I rely on good materials to use with my students and rely heavily on whatofficialmaterial is available. Anybody who works in this field or has been preparing for any well made standardized test for a good period of time will already know this. Well, there is simply no source of material that represents the current state of the GMAT. In a word, for most people there is no product, no book, no software that will accurately predict your score on test day.
I know that many of you will say that you have taken x test and received x score, and that that score was the same as your real score on the real GMAT. However, I have seen very few students receive a score on any of the practice tests within about 10 of their score on the real GMAT. So, what is the solution? To be honest, there is no ideal solution, but the closest you can come is to get your hands on a good variety of materials and try to scour the Internet for the latest gossip.
This is precisely what the most aggressive B-school applicants do, and if youre shooting for a top school, you should too. The Princeton Review discussion board used to be good, but since they implemented a registration process, the quality and number of posts has significantly dropped.
The BusinessWeek board is okay, but its more gossip and chit-chat than most boards. Now that ETS is no more in the picture and Pearson calling the shots, what should be done? I think at least Pearson should come out with some official guide or something that provides insight into the test. A collection of 38 poems by Phillis Wheatley, a slave, was published in the s, the first book by a Black woman and it was only the second published by an American woman.
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen. Imagine the following sentence, which should sound quite natural to native speakers:Why are you angry? I only did it once! Although this sentence may sound correct, it is shunned by strict grammarians. It would be better to word itWhy are you angry? I did it only once! The following sentences should make the meaning differences clear: Only Linda ate the pizza today.
Nobody else only Linda. Linda only ate the pizza today. Linda didnt cook it or buy it she only ate it. Linda ate only the pizza today. Linda didnt eat anything else today only pizza. Linda ate the only pizza today. There was only one pizza, and Linda ate it. Linda ate the pizza only today.
Linda didnt eat the pizza yesterday or before only today OR, Linda didnt eat the pizza until today. Linda ate the pizza today only. Linda didnt eat the pizza yesterday or before only today. The rule of thumb is this: put only as close as possible to the word it should modify.
A it was only the second published by an American woman E only the second published by an American woman The correct answer is E Well, this question also tests parallel structure. Since we want to parallel two nouns, not two sentences, we can get rid of A and B. That leaves us with C, D, and E. I think my explanation above of the usage of only should make it clear why we want to sayonly the second,and not any of the other choices.
You should also notice that C and D are a bit wordy. A believed to be B and that is believed to be C and it is believed to have been D which was, it is believed, E which is believed to be I also support that answer should be A not C.
Isnt it a subjunctive? Erin Are we right? The first past referent here is the belief and is rightly expressed in the past perfect form. Second point to be noted here is we need an and to indicate a separate main clause. Hopefully i have not confused u No I dont agree with you because The 1st sentence is a huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago , This is fine as this is a belief and expressed in simple past.
Lets see 2nd sentence the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet , This is also correctly expressed in past perfect what Erin like to say more past. But last part of sentence i. Does not fit into sentence correctly if we remove part of sentence between two , i. Thesentence would look like this one a huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen First sentence, what I think may be im wrong, is a Phrase.
Secondly, Im not able to digest use of present perfect here. The phrase is telling us about the Quetzalcoatlus which is why gramatically the phrasebelieved to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen. Since there is nothing we can do about the positioning of the nounQuetzalcoatlus,The only option is to introduceand On the same line of thought we can eliminate D and E without having to rack our brain over the tense!
Between B and C in B the pronounTHATis not appropriate forQuetzalcoatluswhich leaves us with only option C Dkpbus, about the way you have broken up the sentence, The main clause of the sentence isA huge flying reptile,the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feetThe phrase isthat died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years agoSo when you try to use the technique of removing the phrase and checking if the sentence still sounds correct it works like thisA huge flying reptile,the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet and and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seenwhich sounds perfect to my ear You cant eliminate the main clause and say that the sentence sounds imperfect,your first sentence is actually not a sentence By introducing a new main clause , we are constructing a sentence with two independent clauses joint by the conjunctionANDanyway , even i am waiting to see what Erin has to say!
But I dont know why the answer C is correct. Erin please help us. Thanks to all the posters that are participating. I took a very simple approach to this. All of the other answers refer to wingspan, not the quetzawhateverus. The only option that describes the quetzawhateverus is answer C. Choosing A would create a dangling modifier. Even some of the university professors I know are not familiar with some of the more obscure words found in the GRE word lists. One word that springs to my mind is obsequy.
Most dictionaries label that word as a rare and endangered word. Most of my English teachers have always emphasised on the need to write clearly, using short sentences, and more importantly, using simple and widely understood words. Their argument is that using stilted English only serves to show ones conceit and obfuscate the meaning of ones prose, where as using more commonplace words helps to convey ones message to a wider readership. They point out that English is a first language only to a small fraction of the words population, about 1 in 12 according to latest estimates, where as it is a second language to at least twice as many.
There are critics of this view, who point out that in order to write precisely and concisely, one is forced to use more esotoric terms. Using a wide vocabulary also helps to prevent the problem of word repition, which often makes the prose more unsightly. They also point out that such words show to the world your erudition, and thus the readers may be willing to accept your views more readily. What do you, the most honourable subscribers of this August Forum, think about this? Your opinions and advice are most appreciated.
In many cases, it turns out, some GRE test takers are under the impression that since the GRE tests hard vocab, they should use similarly difficult vocab in their GRE essays. However, it is entirely possible to get a 6. IMO, its even preferable to avoid such vocab in the essay--its simply not necessary in most cases.
Thank you very much for your advice. I being a simple and compact writer started questioning my style as I saw these essays. But this post has definitely cleared my doubt. Writing pompous language does not help. Sometimes examiner can be university students who need not remember all words they learnt while preparing. When started to write essays I realised this.
I know in GRE the level is much higher, one can sense this just by viewing the list, but if I manage to score 6 twice in toefl just by focusing on the issue and understand the question, I think may be all I need for AWA is just do the same without increasing my vocab level. In fact, even if I know a strong word , I prefer the simple one.. Hello, guys! This is a question that so many people ask me. Its important to know because you might see a question with toward in it.
This type of question therefore indirectly tests you on this knowledge. There is no difference at least in meaning. Same with all those other words that end in ward --forward, backward, upward, northward, etc. The consensus among grammarians and people who love English is that using these words without the s is slightly more formal than using these words with the s.
You will notice in all ETS publications, these words appear without the s. Again, the reason you should know this is that many people think that the word should be used with the s and that its incorrect without the s. This confusion could cost you a point on the test!! This is one of the cars that run on hydrogen. The reasoning is as follows: we are saying that this person or thing, or whatever is a member of a group. What group? Te group of people or things that do or are whatever.
So keep an eye out forone of!! And this ones tricky because we become sort of trained to ignore the stuff inside of prepositional phrases, but as weve just seen, its important to remember that a modifier can modify any noun, no matter where it is. This pattern is a bit different: Each of the men was an engineer. The most acceptable form.
The essential parts of the sentence are in red: each Theof the menpart is a prepositional phrase, and in this sentence, this prepositional phrase has no influence on the subject or verb. In the original example, our situation was a bit different--we had two nouns and one modifier: He is one of the people who bake bread. Grammatically, who bake bread is an adjective clause and therefore modifies a noun and could grammatically modify either people or one , since these are both nouns.
Let me show you two examples: The woman on the bike who is talking to the security guard is a friend of mine. In this case, the adjective clause who is talking to the security guard clearly modifies woman because it is illogical to say that a bike is talking to a security guard. Lets compare a similar sentence: The woman on the bike that has custom graphics is a friend of mine.
In this case, the adjective clause that has custom graphics clearly modifies bike , again since its illogical to talk about a woman having custom graphics. So again, the key here is to figure out which noun the adjective clause modifies, and as I stated in my response to your original question, this grammar point is usually used with one of. Let me know if you have any other questions! But i have a question here which is driving me nuts. Would be reallly grateful to you if you would help me clarify this.
According to scientists at the University of California, the pattern of changes that have occurred in human DNA over the millennia indicate the possibility that everyone alive today might be descended from a single female ancestor who lived in Africa sometime between , and , years ago. A indicate the possibility that everyone alive today might be descended from a single female ancestor who B indicate that everyone alive today might possibly be a descendant of a single female ancestor who had C may indicate that everyone alive today has descended from a single female ancestor who had D indicates that everyone alive today may be a descendant of a single female ancestor who E indicates that everyone alive today might be a descendant from a single female ancestor who Now the official answer given for this isD.
I choseB. Now if i see the answer from tense point of view thenDsounds to be more better. But according to the list of examples which you explained above, the subject pattern of changes followed by relative pronoun that says that the verb comin up next should be plural since it is changes and not change. This is then rightly followed by have and not has.
But later the sentence according to choiceDfails to follow the rule, that is it says indicates which is singular and not indicate which is plural. Now this really confuses me. Is it that this rule is followed only in examples where we say one of the causes, types. Please help The noun in question isthe patternand in addition to it hereChangesis not a verb but a noun too.
Hence Erins explanation holds water. Read it asthe Pattern Appreciate your help 1 One in five Americans who work shorter hours at their job in order to provide care for an elderly relative save society millions of dollars that would ordinarily be required for nursing homes or other long care facilities. A One in five Americans who work shorter hours at their job in order to provide care for an elderly relative save B One in five Americans working shorter hours at their jobs in order to provide care for an elderly relative saves C The one in five Americans who work shorter hours at a job in order to provide care for an elderly relative saves D Those Americans, approximately one-fifth of all employs, who work shorter hours at a job in order to care for an elderly relative save Should it be save or saves here?
Only one of the Presidents nominees was confirmed. Please advise. Yes, this is absolutely correct. I am getting confused Is it because one in five americans? A which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing B which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed C which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing D determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed E determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing.
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differedwhats the difference between using This will be a great help. Its a hard one, what I calladvanced parallel structure. Lets take a look The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
A which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing B which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed C which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing D determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed E determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differingThe growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differedwhats the difference between using A couple of important grammar points here.
Lets start with theoriginalwithout ellipsis, reduction, etc. This is what theoriginalsentence would look like. You will notice that: which were determined is parallel with which differed These two parts are adjective clauses and can bereducedsuch that they become adjective phrases or participial phrases in this particular case: determined is still parallel with differing Okay, thats the first point.
The second point is this: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times , which was were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. And I think these two rules should give you answer choice E. She Lee Erin, Never mind. I think I know now. Sincelocal timesis the subject of the verbdiffer, we should not use passive voiceved. I read your explanation, and I think that you are essentially right, but I just want to make sure.
Now Im going to copy some information from another post. Its a bit tricky to answer these questions sometimes, but the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or the -ed form this: When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will modify is the subject or object of that verb. In our sentence here, which replaces times , and times is the object of determined , but it is the subject of differed.
In other words, we have something like this Finally, everybody gets confused simply because the -ed form appears in the second one, making people think the -ed form should appear again when its reduced. We need to realize that there is truly no connection for our purposes here in GMATland, anyway!!!! If you stick to the rules that I just wrote, youll be okay. Thanks, Erin. That was very informative.
I was wondering if you could comment on my another post, titledQuant. Although, I know some of em but I am sure that your explaination will give me a better insight. Thanks in advace. I have taken the GMAT date but after reading some posts here, I am thinking of postponing it to buy some more time to exhaust such great insights! I hit upon this superb post by my getting carried away with my excitement about testmagicforums.
My question is.. Iam still not clear why answer choice E instead of C. In other words whats wrong with thewhich were. If this is a very basic question just as a beginning novice would ask and you cant bother to answer in detail could you atleast direct me to a thread that has already discussed the role ofwhichin gmatland.
A which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing B which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed C which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing D determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed E determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing I know this question has been discussed exhaustively in the past.
Still, I dont understand why D is incorrect. OA is E. That was a brilliant explanation. I am so glad I found testmagic! Can someone explain? How is determined parallel with differing? Also the local times are now abolished so why will we use present tense? They are both participles even though the first is a past participle and the second a present , they can be correctly used in parallel.
Originally Posted by khushi Also the local times are now abolished so why will we use present tense? Participles are considered adjectives, and they dont have tense: The dinosaurs living on the Earth My friend living in Berkeley Any future time-traveler hoping to save time They are all correct phrases. Here is something more from google on particple.. I sure did mean that. Sorry, I was going too quickly. Ill edit my post now.
On a side note, I seem to recall seeing a grammarian somewhere saying that present and past participles couldnt be paralleled. However, here we go by what GMAT says, not what others say. One last question, why cant we use differed here? Thats a very commonly asked question, and I would ask that you read my explanation of the difference between the present participle and past participle. The quick, but perhaps not too easy to understand, explanation is that differed can be used only as a past tense verb, not as a past participle, as intransitive verbs do not have a past participle to use differed here would be to violate the rule of parallel structure by paralleling a verb and a participle.
Dont worry, I explain in a much easier way in the post I linked to above. I read and re-read but I dont get why we use differing and not differed. Do you have some examples? Then determined and differed would be parallel. But the way its written: determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed determined is a past participle and differed can only be a verb because differed cant be used as a past participle.
Let me try to create a simpler version of this sentence: I didnt really like the experimental movie, which was filmed mostly when it was night and lasting more than three hours. D filmed mostly at night and lasted E filmed mostly at night and lasting Whats the best answer here?
Unless Im typing too quickly, Ive created a pretty close version to the above sentence, and I hope its clearer in this example what the best answer is. And here I will focus only on the part that I think is confusing you. Second, not all verbs have past participles. Intransitive verbs do not. For example, you can say the cat died , but not the cat was died. Similarly, you can say the two ideas differed , but not the two ideas were differed. Perhaps it will be easier to see the difference if we use an irregular verb: The cat ran.
The cat was run. If that doesnt clear up your doubts, could you kindly explain to me in detail whats confusing you? Itll be a lot easier for me to explain if I know whats causing you trouble. I did put in more effort to understand this better again!
Please check the following Here the verb is led So the phrase which Then determined and differed would be parallel Are was determined and differed verbs here? Is this still a participle phrase? Is times still the object of determined and subject of differed? E seems correct. It could also be which was filmed mostly at night and lasted. Im going to try to answer the questions one by one so I dont get confused. Originally Posted by khushi The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
Actually, its not a phrase phrases lack a subject and a verb but a clause clauses are basically sentences--they have a subject and a verb, but Im not so sure that this is terribly important at the moment. Yes, you seem to have the idea of subjects and objects. Notice your test questions are using passive What was determined?
This way, if it makes sense to you, should work just fine. Then determined and differed would be parallel Almost! Originally Posted by khushi Is this still a participle phrase? A participial phrase, to put it simply, is just a group of words that starts with a participle eating only once a day, taken just before bedtime, lost in the woods, spending more money than he should, etc..
And yes, the subjects and objects dont change. Nice job! It seems youve figured these things out for yourself, but feel free to ask again for clarification. Can somebody explain to my why E, the official answer is better than C. C which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing Originally Posted by rdeastbay Ok so my head is spinning from looking at this thread again and again.
Can somebody explain to my why E, the official answer, is better than C? If C were correct as written which is possible grammatically , it would mean this: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which were differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. In other words, which were determined would be parallel with which were differing or, if it werereduced,determined and differing would be parallel.
I think youll agree that the verb tense of which were differing is incorrect, so C is out. I understand now looking at this with a fresh mind helps too. So if C were The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. Then the sentence would be correct. Once again, thanks a lot!
Originally Posted by Erin The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. C which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing If C were correct as written which is possible grammatically , it would mean this: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which were differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
Indeed the sentence quoted below is correct. Originally Posted by rdeastbay Thanks Erin. Thank you. I am truly complacent and wouldnt have taken the initiative to understand this better if you hadnt motivated me in the following sentence.
I hope this sentence is grammatically correct. This is a great forum. I have learnt so much here Let me savor the moment, LOL. Erin, your explanations helped a lot - never understood this sentence even after taking a prep course and delving on this question for hours. Thanks doesnt even express an aorta of my gratitude. I had always thought that the first few questions are weighed more and are more important to your score. The first time that I heard this is untrue is from Erin.
My test is in a few weeks and thank goodness I found out! I pasted the emails I had written ETS and their response below. Take it for what its worth. Erin, could you please look at these emails and answer my last question I asked ETS? Im afraid they will not get back to me in time!
Please, someone help! Hi, I have always heard that it is more important to spend more time on the questions in the beginning of each section since those questions determine your score more than the questions at the end. However, a source online has said that all the questions are of equal weight and that I should spend the same amount of time for all the questions. Is this true?
Please help since I am taking the exam in April. It is not the case that the questions at the beginning of a section are weighted more heavily than questions toward the end of a section. In general, it is true that the computers estimate of your ability changes more in response to a question early in a section than to questions later in the section however, this is due not to the computers giving greater weight to the earlier questions but rather to the fact that early on the computers estimate of your ability is based on very few questions, while near the end of the section this estimate is based on a greater number of questions and is therefore a more reliable estimate.
For example, if you answer question 1 correctly, the computer can infer only that the your ability is probably at or above the mean for the population taking the GMAT, but it cannot tell how far from the mean, and it will then deliver a more difficult question, corresponding to a higher ability level, in order to begin the process of narrowing in on your true ability.
If near the en If you write to us again, please include all previous messages. Hi, Thank you for the quick reply. I have a follow up question pertaining to your response. In general, would a person score higher if he answered the first 20 questions correctly and then missed the rest of the 21 questions assuming its the verbal section or if he missed the first 20 questions and answer the rest correct?
Based on my interpretation of your response, I would think that since the questions are weighted the same, the scores should be roughly the same in both situations. This theory, however, goes against everything I have read in prep books. What is the true result? You have answered your own question correctly, since the questions are weighted the same, the scores should be roughly the same in both situations. If you write to us again, please include all previous messages.
Hi, Now, I am thoroughly confused how the test is graded. Lets just assume that two different people took the test and both only answered 10 questions correctly in the math section. Person 1 answered the first 10 correctly and missed the rest. Person 2 missed all the questions except the last 10, which he answered correctly. Shouldnt Person 1 receive a higher score since he was able to get and answer tougher questions than Person 2? Because Person 2 missed all the questions up to the last 10, those last 10 questions should be easy.
Im going to use the following scale to help explain myself. Lets say that all questions are assigned a difficulty from 1 to Person 1 would have received the following questions with level of difficulty 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 since he was able to answer the first 10 correctly.
On the other hand, by the time Person 2 starts answering the questions correctly, his first question would have a level of difficulty of 1. Therefore, the questions he answered correctly would have the following level of difficulty: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 By the time he gets to a question with level of difficulty 10, he would have finished the test already.
Now, my question is: shouldnt Person 1 receive a higher score since he was able to answer more tougher questions correctly? If he doesnt, please explain how it is fair that Person 1 and Person 2 receive the same score. We have forwarded your inquiry to the appropriate department. You may expect a response in a separate mailing. Thank you for your patience. Please Erin Thank you in advance! I have tested the PowerPrep more than ten times, experimenting with getting different stretches of questions correct in different locations, and my score was identical each time.
Remember, Ive been teaching the OG questions for many years, so Ive got most or all of the answers pretty much memorized, so I can easily choose to answer a question correctly or incorrectly. None of my students who have gotten good scores on the GMAT has ever told me that they used a strategy of paying more attention at the beginning, although I should say that I dont find this evidence enormously compelling as its quite possible that they have used this strategy and simply havent told me.
Second, the level of the question is not adjusted immediately to allow for the element of chance. Third, if ETS says the scores would end up being approximately the same which Ive confirmed in my ownexperiments, then you should adjust yourformulaso that it matches the result, not the other way around.
Fourth, please remember that it is actually almost as difficult to answer every incorrectly as it is to answer every question correctly--to answer every question incorrectly, you would have to know the correct answer so that you wouldnt choose it. So you need to account for random correct answers as well. In my experiments with the PowerPrep, I tested answering half the questions correctly on purpose and guessing randomly on the other half.
I tested the correct stretch of questions in various locations--beginning, near the beginning, middle, near the end, and the end. Each time, my score was exactly the same. I would have to say that there is a preponderance of evidence showing that the first questions do NOT count more toward your score. I am still a little confused and have a few questions pertaining to what you have said.
I mean, what if in reality as absurd as it may sound ETS only counts the first 10 questions on the exam? Doesnt the examinee have the right to know? Thanks again Erin for the detailed response. I look forward to hearing from you soon. I dont understand what exactly the ETS is looking for here.
The modifier should be close to what it modifies and clearly indicates what it modifies. In A,not normally found In D, Composition tissues? One is singular, the other is plural. TIA, tsdvj Hello there, tsdvj! First, it was kind of hard to read this SC with neither underlining nor a repeat of answer A, so I added underlining to your original post.
Okay, on to your question. We have a couple of things happening at the same time. Lets do the easy ones first. First, we have the like vs. Are you familiar with this one? Its quite common in SC. Here it is: like: used to express similarity: Lemons are like limes. Okay, thats easy, right? But look at this mistake: I want you to buy me some fruits like lemons and limes. I want you to buy me some fruits such as lemons and limes. VXU has correctly pointed out the modifier question, and he is absolutely right.
I would like to add, though, that we should not simply eliminate any answer choice just because the modifier is not right next to its noun it is very easy to formulate a correct sentence with a bit of separation between the modifier and themodified. For example: I very much liked the people in India who showed me around.
You can see that who showed me around modifies people but is next to in India , but the sentence is correct simply because it doesnt cause any confusion. Next, we should also be aware of the difference between because and in that. First, using pure strategy, when ETS puts both because and in that , the answer is most likely in that.
Second, because is used to express a simple causal relationship whereas in that qualifies the previous statement. Look at these examples: Cause and effect relationship: I went to sleep because I was tired. Being tired caused me to go to sleep. Qualification: Going to college is a sacrifice in that doing so requires several years of forgoing the income that students could have earned had they not attended college.
In our SC,in thatis more precise thanbecause. This usually does the trick. This point make sense? Raghuveer --if youre reading this, please note the absence ofDoes. I hope so, but please be sure to post back for clarification. Edit : The comment to Raghuveer was made in reference to a question he asked earlier about omitting the do in questions in spoken English in this thread Finally, many students will think that E is wrong because it repeats the wordtissues. There are many different ways to explain why this is correct, but the easiest way for me now if you understand some grammar terms is to say that it is okay to repeat the noun for clarification.
For those of you who know grammar well, the secondtissuescan be seen as a reduction ofwhich are tissues,what we often refer to as areduced adjective clause. Hope that helps!! I read this somewhere, but in this particular SC question, the answer choices with because have other errors.
Just asking, as I took a test yesterday with this very question and got it wrong! The two have different meanings, so you should choose not on the basis of concision, but on the basis of meaning. I want to thank you very much for everything that this site done for me! Still waiting for some pictures from Romania Can you stick this topic at the top of the section. Here are the ones Ive written down: base form : noun, grammatical term essentially the infinitive to do, to be, to want without thetopart.
Here are most of the be-verbs: is, are, am, was, were. Remember that be-verbs combined with auxiliary verbs are also be-verbs: has been, have been, will have been, must have been, should have been , etc. For example, if you ask a question, and nobody answers it, you canbumpyour post by adding a meaningless reply such asBump! Bumping is usually frowned upon, but is acceptable in some cases. Slightly more polite than IMO.
For more information about intransitive and transitive verbs, click here. We use this acronym to show that we think that something is very funny. OG : acronym Official Guide. This term is used to refer to the most recent edition of the official GMAT review book. All prepositions MUST be followed by nouns they can never be followed by sentences. When we put a noun after a preposition, we have anadverbial phrase. Click here to see a list of most of the prepositions that you will ever need to know.
Click here for more information about prepositions. This acronym refers to the English commonly spoken in the US. SC : acronym subordinating conjuction : a conjunction used to join a subordinate sentence and a main sentence. Check here for more information. For more information about transitive and intransitive verbs, click here. For example, in these sentences, the first words are quantifiers: One of the cars is red. Two of the cars are red. Half of the cars are red. Some of the cars are red.
All of the cars are red. Each of the cars is red. Enough of the cars are red. Many TestMagic students find quantifiers tricky because quantifiers can also be pronouns if they are used without the nouns. Look at the following sentences. Two are red. Half are red. Some are red. All are red.
Each is red. Enough are red. Here is the TestMagic list of quantifiers: 0, 10, 50, , etc. Its great as I know you! You can put some examples for these quantifiers, cannot you? Are there any in particular that youd like examples of?
Also, as an example, the word various could be used as an adjective, couldnt it? What is the difference? We use determiners with nouns. The most common determiners are the , a , and an , but there are many more that are also important. Heres a list of most of the determiners: the a an another no s the a an no another s some any my our their her his its another no s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.
But some of them are repeated Over my 10 years of teaching TOEFL, Ive seen, for example, that people forget thatno,some,andsare determiners, and will often miss questions related to those determiners, so Im trying to reinforce their importance. I think Ill go back and make these important words red. Partitive constructions have given me many troubles. Typically, partitive noun phrase consist of count noun phrase determiner followed by Of-NP. That suggests that the seemingly syntactic heads as most , no one , half , all , most are not the sole determiner in deciding the verb agreement.
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