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Registered a Medical Practitioner Coins to be received into Government Treasuries, and rates at which received Rupee, rate at which received and paid at Government Treasuries Importation of silver and copper coins prohibitej 36, 65 Date to which English pennies and half-pence and Turkish coins will be received into Government Treasuries Legal tender, Queen's Proclamation Date to come into force.. Ordinance amending laws affecting Regulation Ordinance, Ordinance for making Customs and Import duties matter of Regulation Ordinance providing for certain exemptions and drawbacks of Customs duty, draft Ordinance Ordinance passed to amend the law relating to the collection 97 of Excise duty on wine Ordinance to facilitate the collection of Customs and Excise duties, draft Ordinance passed Law to amend Customs and Excise duties, draft passed Passengers' baggage, Regulations respecting Grid arrangement of soldiers who died during the events, Peace and Freedom Museum, near Kerynia, northern part of Cyprus, Struggle Museum, southern part of Nicosia, Arrangement at the Museum of Barbarism, northern part of Nicosia, of a photograph of a Turkish Cypriot woman in agony.

Barnabas Icon Museum, An Orthodox Christian, Greek Cypriot woman kissing the icons, while two tourists who happened to be there at the time photograph her, Leventis Gallery. We are, thus, grateful to the leader, Peter Aronsson, and all the partners, Simon Knell, Arne Bugge Amundsen, Ilaria Porciani, Dominique Poulot, Kristin Kuutma and Constantin Iordachi, for their support and for providing a wonderful and inspiring peer environment for us.

Special thanks are due to co-researchers in the EuNaMus project, Bodil Axelsson, Sheila Watson, Andy Sawyers, Felicity Bodenstein, and Lill Eilertsen, as well as to all participants in the conferences and workshops organised by the programme. What started as a chapter in the overview of the development of national museums in Europe, specifically a chapter about Cyprus, soon became a most interesting and challenging research project for both of us.

Hadjigavriel, director of the A. Ruth Keshishian was a constant and generous source of information and support. Her bookshop was a hospitable place to enjoy tea and books, while Ruth, who knows everything published about Cyprus and everybody who is anybody, was listening, advising, and caring.

Also, Nasia Panayiotou, librarian at the Cyprus University of Technology, was an invaluable help in getting difficult to find texts into our hands. Ideas and views presented in this book have been presented at a number of conferences. Finally, we are extremely grateful to all the anonymous interviewees from both sides of the Green Line. At the same time, it is also historically and politically rich enough to allow for complexity and nuanced understandings. This book attempts to synthesize the research work we have been doing in Cyprus for the last few years and to provide a multifaceted and deeper understanding of how different forces politics, conflict, national agendas, and individual initiatives can help shape museums and their narratives and thus contribute to the creation of national, community, and personal identities.

Furthermore, it examines how museums use their collections, exhibitions, objects, and interpretation material to selectively construct collective memories through inclusion and exclusion. However, this is not a book about the history of museums in Cyprus even though many chapters provide historical details or a book about the political situation in Cyprus.

It is a book that attempts to deconstruct and reveal how politics are interwoven in all facets of museums from their establishment to their collections, exhibitions, and use of artifacts, text, and photography. One of the main contributions of this book is that it puts the spotlight on new emerging nation-states amidst political conflict.

Aronsson discusses the characteristics of three categories of nation-states: a empires and conglomerates such as Great Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Belgium; b smaller states with a long nation-state history such as Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland; and c new emerging nation-states such as the United States, Finland, Hungary, South Africa, Poland, Italy, Turkey, Greece, 16 The Political Museum and of course, Cyprus.

While a lot has been written about museums in Western countries, especially concerning the first category of nation-states, little has been written about those in new emerging nation-states, and particularly those that are in the midst of conflict. Cyprus, a former colony of Britain with a turbulent history, provides an ideal example of such a country. Following independence in , bitter intercommunal conflicts between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and the eventual Turkish military occupation according to the Greek Cypriot authorities or intervention according to the Turkish Cypriot authorities have left the country divided into two parts Turkish Cypriots in the northern part of the island, Greek Cypriots in the southern part.

Culture and identity are often at the heart of such conflict. The focus of this book is on a specific geographical and cultural territory, but the questions, themes, and arguments apply to other places characterized by colonial heritage, ethnic conflict, or political turmoil. As the case of Cyprus is not unique, this book can inform debates in other countries or communities amidst actual or symbolic conflict such as Israel, Northern Ireland, the Basque Country, a number of post communist countries such as Ukraine and Moldova , former Yugoslavia countries such as Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, and the Former Yugoslavic Republic of Macedonia , and South Asian and African countries.

Since one of the main arguments of this book is that politics directly influence identity, it only makes sense to reveal our own personal identities and possible biases. To begin with, one of us is Greek Cypriot and the other a Greek national. This means that, despite our best efforts, our views might be colored by our national identity, upbringing, and education. Having said that, we are also both female academics who have lived, studied, and worked for long periods of our adult lives in countries other than Cyprus and Greece and have international families and friends.

We are, like most people are, firm believers of multiculturalism, human rights, and peace. Consequently, the views expressed in this book are the outcome of a complex set of biases, views, and ideas. We tried to approach the museums of the island and their narratives in a nonjudgmental manner and focus, not on their narratives as such, but on the construction of these narratives. Even though Cyprus is still divided into two parts for more information, see Chapter 2 , we have attempted to examine museums in both parts of the island, despite the difficulties involved in such an attempt.

Finally, this book and the ideas it contains can be seen as the product of a particular place and time. It reflects developments in museum studies and a recent trend in Cyprus and other postcolonial countries to critically examine the histories of the island. Introduction 17 Even though a lot has been written about the conflict in Cyprus and the effects it has on memory and identity, the contribution of museums is mainly ignored with the exception of a couple of notable anthropological articles that refer to specific museums see for example, Papadakis, ; Scott, a.

The fact that political and social analysts ignore museums is ironic, considering how influential museums can be during periods of conflict. Each chapter deals with different issues using a variety of methodologies and case-study museums. The chapters explore a variety of museums but mainly archaeological, historical, art, Byzantine,1 and ethnographic museums.

Finally, there are certain conceptual threads than run across and unite all chapters, such as those of memory, identity, visibility, and representation politics. Chapter 2 examines why and in what ways museums are political in nature, and introduces a working definition of politics that is used for the purposes of this book.

It also looks at how the perceived objectivity and authority of museums transforms them into powerful institutions capable of shaping memory and identity. Then, the chapter provides a short history of Cyprus that the reader should keep in mind when reading the subsequent chapters. Finally, it discusses the connection between nationalism and identity and introduces the museum scene of Cyprus. The emphasis is on how politics and competing national identities have influenced the creation of national museums.

More specifically, Chapter 3 examines the establishment of state museums by the British, Turkish Cypriot, and Greek Cypriot authorities, during three phases of Cypriot history: the first phase extends from the last quarter of the nineteenth century until , the second phase is the period between and , and the third is the period after We will see that the phases influenced the number and kinds of museums established, as well as their main narratives that seem to support an ethnonational approach.

Nations often use certain periods of their history to exemplify a sense of national identity. Chapter 4 explores how archaeology, the discipline that brings a nation closer to its distant roots, is used to support the Greek Cypriot claims on the land.

The emphasis that the Greek Cypriot government and other bodies in the southern part of Cyprus place on archaeology in the majority of state museums in southern Cyprus is justified within the discourse of Hellenism and its twin pillars: antiquity and Christianity. While the previous chapter explores how the broader political environment of Cyprus influences the creation and shaping of the general museum scene of Cyprus, this chapter examines the Cyprus Museum, the oldest and biggest national museum on the island.

It highlights how archaeology became the foster child of colonial Cyprus and eventually came to represent the whole country. These initiatives often sprang from different communities or individuals. Furthermore, with the rise of tourism, every village on the island felt the need to create a local, usually ethnographic, museum.

Chapter 5 investigates the complex processes of the establishment of folk art museums on the island, which involved multiple stakeholders, individual patrons, collectors, and cultural societies, as well as the State and various local and municipal authorities. This chapter also examines the similarities and differences in the narratives developed by the two main communities of the island, and the uses of these narratives in identity construction on a communal and national level.

What is made visible, how it is presented, and how it is interpreted determine the overall museum narrative and the messages communicated to the public. This is nowhere more evident than in history museums, especially when they present the same historical period but from different points of view. This phenomenon questions the objectivity and inclusiveness of history museums in countries amidst conflict and brings to the foreground questions related to the shaping of national memories, inclusion and exclusion, and the future of these museums.

While there is plenty of discussion about the way objects have been used in museums to create a feeling of authenticity and support the narratives presented, not much attention has been given to how photography—a medium that claims an unmediated representation of reality—is utilized for these aims. Chapter 7 focuses on the medium of photography in five history, war-related museums in order to examine how photography is used as a means to construct strong narratives by assuming the role of factual information and by appealing to emotions.

More specifically, this chapter explores the types of photographs most common in war-related museums, the context photography is presented in and how it influences meaning and, finally, the relationship between photography, memory, and history. The previous chapters of the book explore how the establishment of museums and their exhibition tactics re construct what we consider cultural heritage. Chapter 8 explores in what ways groups of people who were not instrumental in setting up museum narratives but have a deep interest in these narratives or feel that they own the objects on display and therefore have a say in the narratives offered access, resist, and even create their own narratives.

It uses as a case study the Saint Barnabas Icon Museum one of the five icon museums that currently operate in the northern, mainly Muslim, part of Cyprus to show how politics influence the operation of the museum as well as how a small group of Orthodox Christian Greek Cypriots, the Women of St. Barnabas, reject its museum role and consciously choose to use the space as a church.

For the Republic of Cyprus, they are seen as proof of the purposeful and continuous cultural destruction of Christian religious sites by the Turkish occupying forces. Conversely, for the Turkish Cypriot authorities, icon museums contradict Greek Cypriot accusations of cultural destruction and have become a public display of respect and religious tolerance. Art museums are often seen as apolitical because of their focus on art historical and aesthetic considerations. Chapter 9 questions this assumption by exploring how political events and cultural policies influenced the collections and exhibitions of the State Gallery of Contemporary Cypriot Art.

Finally, Chapter 10 brings the threads of the book together by discussing the functions and roles of museums in newly emerging nation states amidst conflict, as well as how, collectively, they play an important role in imprinting communal and personal memories, informing national and personal identities, and institutionalizing multiple and often conflicting histories.

Chapter 10 also examines the role of multiple stakeholders and the interconnection between internal national and external international politics. Who controls the present controls the past. Orwell, , p. Museums play a crucial role in negotiating the meaning of our past, help define current identities, and influence the way we approach the future.

That the museum has a political as well as a social function is hardly a new idea. To begin with, museums have traditionally functioned as instruments of princely or national pride, sites of symbolic revolution, or utilitarian instruments for democratic education Hooper-Greenhill, Thus, the authoritative museum has traditionally functioned as an instrument for shaping public opinion, values, and behavior. Even though most museums nowadays strive for objectivity, professionalism, disciplinary excellence, and independence, they still cannot escape politics.

Furthermore, museums, like many other public institutions, are political in nature not only because they cannot function outside their socio-cultural and political environment but also because they have the power to influence national, communal, and personal identities. With power comes influence and responsibility.

Nevertheless, with only a few exceptions, political analysts ignore museums Luke, Perhaps the main reason that museums are not the focus of political analysis is that, despite their political history and functions, they are considered by most people to be apolitical, knowledgecentered institutions. This chapter explores the interrelationship between museums and politics and arrives at a working definition of politics that is helpful for our discussions.

Further, it introduces the reader to our case study, Cyprus, and its history, crucial national identity issues, and museum environment. Defining Politics: The Political Museum In order to understand the relationship between museums and politics it is important to first unpack the term politics and arrive at a useful definition. As the discipline of political science was born at the crossroads of history, sociology, psychology, economics, and public law, a variety of schools of thought have claimed its analysis de Sousa, ; Heywood, Political science, the main discipline that deals with politics, has traditionally aimed at creating a firm disciplinary grounding by attaching itself to the natural sciences and by using positivist approaches.

The positivist mainstream views politics as a science with a unified ontology, epistemology, and methodology that has methods and standards similar to those of the natural sciences Heywood, ; Keating, Furthermore, positivist political scientists usually seek to eliminate the parameters of culture, tradition, and geography in search for universal models Keating, As a reaction to positivist approaches, a number of researchers and thinkers have highlighted the subjective nature of politics and the social embedding of individual actors.

Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 23 These more open notions of politics support a more constructivist or contextual approach where history and geography play an active role Keating, Disciplinary boundaries such as those of politics and economy are nowadays accepted as artificial and unnecessary, and a dialogue between various disciplines is encouraged Hay, Defining politics and what exactly makes a social interaction political has been political itself.

The definitions provided by political analysts depend on the approach they use and vary from extremely narrow definitions that focus on state government, and even party politics, to all encompassing definitions that include all social activities in all areas of social life. An overly narrow definition of politics cannot apply to institutions such as museums since museums do not usually play a direct role in state governance or party politics.

On the other hand, an all-encompassing definition such as the one provided by Leftwich is not very useful in discussing specific concepts such as power and conflict, which are important to political discussions. Baker provides a very useful definition for our purposes that emphasizes the linguistic and symbolic realm of politics.

We adopt this definition for the purposes of this book, since museums are institutions that function within the symbolic realm to help articulate, negotiate, visualize, and present community and individual narratives. In the case of Cyprus, museums seem to reflect and crystalize the competing claims of the two main ethnic communities of the island.

Baker also maintains that: Political culture is, in this sense, the set of discourses or symbolic practices by which these claims are made. It comprises the definitions of the relative subject-positions from which individuals and groups may or may not legitimately make claims one upon another, and therefore of the identity and boundaries of the communities to which they belong. From the above definition two key issues become prominent, which lie at the heart of politics: power and conflict.

The following paragraphs explore these concepts in order to further examine in what ways museums are political in nature. What is often ignored is the fact a that it is difficult, if not impossible, to represent something in a museum, or any other medium, as objective social or political reality independent of our understanding of it Heywood, , and b that the context of an institution, and more specifically its culture, history, and geography, influence its entity and practices.

Questions like what is worth preserving, what is studied and by whom, what is chosen for exhibition, and how it is interpreted are vital in understanding museums and their connections with politics. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that these crucial questions remain at a theoretical or professional level. Most museum visitors often take museum narratives for granted without questioning their construction. Museums are invested with the power to represent certain points of view as natural, acceptable, and truthful.

This power unavoidably carries a burden of responsibility—responsibility for the messages presented and for the messages not presented. Since museums are generally perceived as the unbiased safe houses of knowledge, authority and power become interrelated concepts.

Authority seems to grant museums the right to control, articulate, and present narratives of the past, present, and future and thus influence perceptions, values and, finally, behavior. Visibility and Representation: Politics at the Exhibition Level and Beyond Museums adopt two main roles when designing exhibitions: that of the selector or exhibitor and that of the interpreter. Unavoidably, the articulation of knowledge and power crystallizes at the exhibition space Bennett, In his book Museum Politics: Power Plays at the Exhibition, Luke provides various fascinating examples of articulations of knowledge and power by focusing on controversial exhibitions.

Furthermore, Luke argues that museums are venues where many key cultural realities are first presented and defined. His examples include exhibitions that directly challenge preconceived ideas and steer controversy. Any action of a museum is political in the sense that decisions are constantly made between competing alternatives. For example, what is considered important to collect and exhibit at a national art museum might depend on broader art historical concepts such as what is considered art, who are considered to be the important artists of a period, and what is considered their most representative works and ideological and nationalist concepts such as what exemplifies a national identity of a place at the specific time , as well as practical reasons space, money, personnel, etc.

These concepts and ideas vary from place to place and from time to time. Second, focusing on museum micro-politics and the politics of specific exhibitions gives the illusion that museum professionals and experts are mainly responsible for exhibition narratives and therefore for visibility and representation politics. We argue that, especially in countries where conflict is prominent, museum professionals are not the only, or even the main, stakeholders that shape exhibition narratives.

Museums might be human constructions but their histories, collections, and functions go beyond the actions and careers of specific individuals. These stakeholders are responsible for the establishment of museums, their functions, and the narratives presented.

An individual or an entity can belong to more than one of these categories. For example, an individual can be a museum professional, a researcher, and a visitor. Some of these identities might even conflict with each other. Sometimes different stakeholders might be in conflict. In this case, different stakeholders envision the role of the museum in dramatically different ways. Museum professionals are increasingly aware of the conflict between different museum stakeholders and the effects these conflicts might have on the interpretation of their collections.

For this reason, they often attempt to develop channels of communication and collaboration with different stakeholders Herle, ; Macdonald, However, what happens when conflict is not located within the different roles of an individual or within the narratives of a particular exhibition? What happens when the conflict involves visibility and representational politics of ethnic communities with competing claims and takes place in a number of museums simultaneously?

How are museums affected by broader political conflicts and debates? Can, or should, museums contribute to change and reconciliation? If yes, in what ways? These questions bring us to our case study: the island of Cyprus. Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 27 Time and Place: Cyprus as a Case Study Having tackled the definition of politics and examined the relationship of museums with visibility and representation politics, we now turn to our specific case study.

Undeniably, museums function in a specific place and time, and thus geography and history play a crucial role in their development and overall character. Place and time also determine which stakeholders are more active or powerful and thus which aspects of cultural heritage and histories become more visible and prominent. Then, we explore important issues of nationalism and identity in Cyprus and, finally, we provide an overview of the Cypriot museum environment and its main stakeholders.

History of Cyprus: A Brief Overview Cyprus, an island of the Eastern Mediterranean strategically located between East and West, has a long history of war, conflict, and occupation by competing powers striving to control the area. The history of Cyprus starts in the Neolithic period, approximately in bce. It is believed that the first people to arrive on the island originated in the Near East. Successive people colonized the island from the third millennium bce onwards:5 settlers from Anatolia Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic period, dating from bce to bce , Egyptian influence fifteenthth century bce , the Mycenaeans,6 the Phoenicians around bce ,7 the Assyrians bce , and then the Egyptians bce again, to be followed by the Persians, whose domination lasted until the end of the fourth century bce Coldstream, ; Hanworth, ; Karageorghis, ; Peltenburg, ; Tatton-Brown, As the Roman Empire grew in power and Cyprus became a province of the new empire in 30 bce, Christianization of Cyprus began in 46 ce with the visit of St.

Paul and St. By the fourth century ce, the bishops of Cyprus were strong and influential enough to achieve an autonomous status within the early Orthodox Church in the fifth century. Cyprus became a semi-independent autonomous province administered from Antioch and in was granted ecclesiastical autonomy Runciman, The wealth of the island attracted Arab raids in the seventh and eighth centuries, and these along with earthquakes destroyed many of the buildings of previous periods.

The earliest mosque in Cyprus, Hala Sultan Tekke, is associated with the first Arab attempts to occupy the island in ce. The Byzantine period lasted until , when, during 28 The Political Museum the Third Crusade, the island was conquered by Richard the Lionheart and his allies. The inhabitants though fought him hard and forced him first to sell the island to the Knights Templar and then to offer it to Guy de Lusignan from Jerusalem, whose family produced the rulers of the island until Frankish period , when it came under Venetian rule that lasted until During the previous periods, the Orthodox Church was subjugated to the Latin Catholic and a feudal system of government was imposed.

The Ottomans arrived on the island in Feudalism was abolished, and Turkish settlers, mostly soldiers, were added to the local population of Greeks, Armenians, and Maronites. The Sultan, following a common Ottoman practice, arranged direct access to the Porte of the Archbishop of the island, who was eventually recognized as the leader the Ethnarch of the Greek Cypriot population in In the early nineteenth century, the Greek War of Independence resulted in a massacre of Cypriots, including the Archbishop, clergy, wealthy traders, and intellectuals, undertaken by the Ottomans just to make sure that Cyprus would not participate to the uprising.

Greek irredentism, envisioning the liberation of all Greeks under Ottoman rule, was the foundation of later attempts in Cyprus to achieve union enosis with Greece Kitromilides, After three centuries of Ottoman rule, Britain took over administration of the island in as part of the settlement between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, during the twentieth century, there was a gradual rise first of Greek nationalism and later of Turkish, with Greek Cypriots supporting enosis, that is, the union of Cyprus with Greece, while Turkish Cypriots demanded taksim, that is, partition.

From to a clandestine armed organization called eoka Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston - National Organization of Cypriot Fighters initiated an armed struggle against the British, under the military guidance of George Grivas Digenes8 , a Cyprus born Greek army officer. The political movement for enosis was led by the Ethnarch, Archbishop Makarios, who later became the first President of the Republic of Cyprus.

Colonial authorities, taking advantage of the growing discontent of the Turkish Cypriot community with the prospect of becoming a very small minority in a major Greek state, began recruiting Turkish Cypriot auxiliary policemen to suppress civilian demonstrations in favor of enosis. The chasm between the two communities was growing and inter-communal fighting broke out in the summer of ; both eoka and tmt attacked not just members of the opposing ethnic Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 29 groups but also members of their own—mostly supporters of the left-wing political parties active on the island Papadakis, b.

In agreements in Zurich and London brought an end to the armed conflicts, and an independent Republic of Cyprus was established on August 15, Britain retained sovereignty over its military bases, and the peace between the two major ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, was to be guaranteed by Britain, Greece, and Turkey. The two communities formed two different assemblies, the Greek Cypriot one with 80 percent of the total population and the Turkish Cypriot one with 18 percent.

The new state formation did not satisfy either of the two main communities, and both continued to pursue their separate objectives. In a new round of inter-communal conflict broke out that lasted until , with Turkish Cypriots bearing heavy costs in terms of casualties and displacements around a fifth of their population was displaced, mainly transported to enclaves and camps.

With the rise in power in Greece of a military dictatorship, Greek Cypriots gradually edged away from union with Greece and sought instead to preserve the independence of Cyprus Mallinson, Nevertheless, a new conflict developed, this time among Greek Cypriots. As a result, Turkey, which along with Greeks and the British was appointed according to the Zurich agreement as a guarantor power, organized a military operation that led to the division of the island and the displacement of the population most Greek Cypriots fled to the southern part of the island and Turkish Cypriots to the northern part.

This time Greek Cypriots suffered the most in terms of human losses, social costs of dislocation, and financial losses of their properties. Cyprus then divided in two parts. Around , Greek Cypriot refugees were re-settled in the southern part of the island, while 71, Turkish Cypriots were forced to move to the northern part and were mostly accommodated in the vacated Greek Cypriot properties.

This is, of course, only a rough sketch of the political events of this period for more information see Calotychos, ; Hitchens, ; Kitromilides, ; Loizos, ; Papadakis, a. Following the Ottoman example, Turkey re-settled an 30 The Political Museum estimated 60, Turks Hatay, in the northern part of the island— although numbers are uncertain.

In , crossing points for people to move between the two parts were opened and some trade was allowed. The access has caused major emotional responses for many, since Greek Cypriots found their former properties occupied by Turkish and Turkish-Cypriots and vice versa, or in some cases, sold to foreign owners; a number of high profile lawsuits have been concluded or are in progress to this day. The year also saw the accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the European Union despite the continued division.

It has had an effect on educational, economic, social, and cultural policies and thus has a profound influence on both national and personal identities. There have been many attempts at the unification of the island, but Nicosia still remains divided and a buffer zone monitored by United Nations troops is still located at the divide. The map in Figure 2. It also shows the British military bases. Figure 2.

Blue and white barrels are stacked one on top of the other to block a road leading to the northern part of Nicosia. The specific area is being revitalized slowly, and thus one can see abandoned, dilapidated houses coexisting with a number of bars, alternative cafes, and small businesses that are located in the vicinity.

A number of advertising and directional signs evident in the photograph testify to the coexistence of a recent, turbulent past with nearby physical and emotional scars and a commercial present with economic and tourist development. The crisis deepened in and peaked in with the European Union and International Monetary Fund rescue plan, which resulted in the bail-out of uninsured depositors of the two biggest local banks.

As a result, the Cyprus problem and the financial crisis are currently the two main preoccupations of the government and the media, marginalizing other important issues such as gender equality, social inclusion, civil rights, and environmental issues Demetriou, ; Hadjipavlou, Map of Cyprus, CIA. Public domain. Photo by the authors. Indeed, identity, memory, and nationalism have been catchphrases used and scrutinized almost compulsively in diverse disciplines such as history, political studies, art history and practice, anthropology, sociology, and, of course, museum studies.

Even though it falls outside the scope of this book to provide an overview of this literature, we will discuss a useful distinction made by Smith , , between two forms of nationalism: civic and ethnic nationalism. This distinction is crucial for the discussion on museums in countries amidst conflict, and we will return to this distinction in Chapter 3 and in Chapter 9. In civic nationalism, nationhood is defined by a common citizenship regardless of ethnicity, race, color, religion, or gender.

The civic nation comprises citizens who are all equal, hold the same rights, and share a common set of political practices and values. It is thus united by a civic rather than an ethnic definition of belonging. As we will see in this book, most Cypriot museums and especially national museums seem to adopt an ethno-national approach by promoting an ethnic instead of a civic sense of nationalism.

As a result, the official documents accumulated by both communities are mainly one-sided and fragmented. Other identity markers such as age, gender, and sexual orientation are usually underplayed or ignored. Furthermore, different political aims caused the two communities to adopt different official narratives of the past. On the other hand, the Turkish Cypriot authorities claim that the past was one of pure animosity and conflict and therefore separation is the only reasonable solution.

In general, there is an unwillingness to consider or engage with the positions of the other side. As a matter of fact, any conflicting information is usually dismissed as propaganda and 34 The Political Museum any dissident voices as traitors Papadakis, a. This approach often results not only in the self-censorship of individuals but also of museums.

Right and left wing politics also seem to play a crucial role. In any case, we need to keep in mind that identity in the sphere of official rhetoric and party politics is not necessarily the same as that of everyday life. Things become even more complicated when one zooms in on the individual level. People are defined not only by their ethnic, religious, and ideological orientation but also by their age, gender, social position, experiences, and attitudes.

In addition, migration from Asian and Eastern European countries, as well as the increasing number of marriages between Cypriots and people from other nationalities, obscures the straightforward binary ethnic distinction Turkish Cypriots or Greek Cypriots. The total population of the southern part of the island according to the latest population census conducted in is , people, of whom , are Cypriot citizens and of these, , were born on the island of Cyprus , , are eu citizens, and 64, are non-eu citizens11 Republic of Cyprus, The same census indicates that non-Cypriot permanent residents rose to The changing composition of the population points to a multiplicity of voices, and it is this multiplicity of voices and perceptions that makes civic rather than ethnic nationalism more urgent than ever.

Cypriot Museums and Stakeholders At first glance, in Cyprus, a small country with less than a million residents, there is a large number of museums per capita in operation. The first museum in Cyprus, the Cyprus Museum, was inaugurated in during the British rule and is still the largest archaeological museum in Cyprus.

During the first half of the twentieth century a number of museums were initiated by the British authorities or by local societies. What follows is a short overview of the museum scene in Cyprus and the key stakeholders who have established and maintain museums in the southern part of the island. Even though the various chapters of this book deal equally with museums in the northern and southern parts of the island, there is not much information about the cultural policy or establishment of museums in the northern part of Cyprus.

The most active decade for the establishment of museums, at least in the southern part, was the s, a decade of financial prosperity and security. The state runs all archaeological museums apart from one 11 out of 12 and has also established a small number of ethnographic museums.

The law, which became effective in , aims primarily at setting professional standards for museums as well as broadening and advancing the services offered to their visitors. State funding for museums aims at serving their further development by covering only developmental expenses and not financing any operational needs Nicolaou, As we mentioned, there are three main stakeholders involved in the establishment and running of museums in the southern part of Cyprus and most probably in the northern part as well : a the state, b communities and municipalities, and c foundations and private collectors.

For this reason a whole chapter Chapter 3 is dedicated to the examination of the network of national museums established by both the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot authorities. In the field of local government, cultural departments and services have been created in most municipalities of Cyprus. They develop cultural activities by organizing festivals and other events, but also by establishing and managing museums and other cultural institutions Ministry of Education and Culture, When communities or municipalities establish museums, their goals usually involve the preservation of tangible and intangible heritage for future generations and the promotion of local and community identities.

In contrast with state priorities, smaller communities or municipalities are usually mostly interested in local identities and economic revitalization. Municipal and community museums seem to focus on ethnographic museums mainly for two reasons. First, the diminishing number of inhabitants, especially young people in rural villages and, as a result, the slowly disappearing of traditional knowhow increases the perceived urgency of preservation of local customs and traditions and folklore.

The availability of funding for restor- Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 37 ing traditional buildings from the government of Cyprus and the European Union contributes to and reinforces this trend. Second, museums are seen by these communities as a way to attract tourists to the mainly quiet but picturesque villages and therefore have a positive effect on local economic development.

Private collectors or foundations often establish and run museums with an aim to preserve and make public private collections. Private museums can be museums owned by individuals e. Private museums comprise the most diverse category of museums in Cyprus because of the many stakeholders involved in their establishment.

Some private museums are large institutions with strong partnerships, while others are small, one-person affairs. Furthermore, some private individuals and foundations maintain fruitful collaborations with municipalities while partially maintaining their private legal status. These museums were initiated by the Leventis and the Pierides families respectively and primarily house what originally were their private collections.

Two other key private stakeholders that play an important part in the preservation and promotion of Cypriot heritage and contemporary arts are financial institutions such as banks and the Church of Cyprus. Several banks through their cultural centers i. Their contribution is based on the principle of corporate social responsibility. Additionally, the Church of Cyprus has always played an important role in the socio-cultural and political environment of Cyprus.

Ten out of fourteen Byzantine museums that currently operate in southern Cyprus were established and run by the Church of Cyprus with an aim to preserve and promote the Byzantine and post-Byzantine heritage. These museums are also archaeological, in the sense that they deal with Byzantine archaeology, but they represent a separate category, since the religious aspect of the collections seems to prevail over the archaeological one.

Finally, some institutions, such as the Nicosia Municipal Arts Centre or the Evagoras and Kathleen Lanitis Foundation, house only temporary exhibitions and thus encourage repeat visits. These institutions focus on creativity and artistic vitality and are quite popular with the local population.

This is true in the case of Cyprus, since the most innovative art institutions are not state-run but private ones. One last group of stakeholders are the museum professionals themselves. Museum professionals are authoritative figures in the sense that they are the products of an educational and professional system that emphasizes specialized disciplinary knowledge, and they are governed by professional societies that adhere to ethical guidelines.

Museum professionals make everyday decisions concerning their individual museums. These everyday, mundane decisions often have a political function, even if museum professionals may not intend or anticipate such functions. In Cyprus this group of stakeholders is not very strong. For example, with only a few exceptions, the majority of ethnographic museums in different rural communities go about their business with just one person, usually a guard.

On the other hand, the government employs a number of specialized museum professionals mainly archaeologists , especially in the Department of Antiquities. The Department of Antiquities is also the base of the professional association icom International Council of Museums Cyprus.

Usually, the activities of the Cyprus Committee of icom are restricted to events organized once a year for International Museum Day and Night. No other professional museum association exists in Cyprus that would support, develop, and further educate the museum community.

In the case of Cyprus, two main ethnic communities, with competing claims, use museums to do exactly that: articulate, implement, and enforce ethno-national, community, and individual identities. Museums, Politics, Stakeholders, and Conflict 39 Museums were and will always be political institutions because they cannot easily escape the political codes, shared knowledge, and interpretations that are prevalent in the public sphere.

Furthermore, especially when a country is torn by ethnic conflict, each community tries to unite itself in every possible way and voice its claims as loudly and clearly as possible. In our case, the state, followed by religious institutions such as the Church of Cyprus, seems to be the most powerful stakeholder when it comes to establishing and reinforcing a sense of ethno-national identity. Nevertheless, private foundations, institutions, and individuals contribute to the museum scene of Cyprus with a variety of museums that reflect their own objectives, visions, and interests.

Even though or precisely because of this these institutions might not have the security of a steady and unquestioned flow of funding that national museums enjoy, some of the most innovative projects that diverge from ethno-national approaches come from these institutions see for example Chapter 9. After all, museums are not stable and unchanging. On the contrary, they are often proactive and innovative organizations that are guided by missions, goals, and ideals.

Change is possible when the right conditions are in place. To conclude, museums function in a complex political system in which various stakeholders share and negotiate power. Multiple stakeholders mean that power does not rest in the hands of specific individuals, groups, or institutions but is widely diffused. Nevertheless, some stakeholders seem to be more powerful than others. Finally, while museums constitute the material reflection of societies, they also have the power to shape society.

The following chapters focus on how politics and various stakeholders shape Cypriot museums and their narratives. However, we will also provide examples see Chapter 8 of how certain communities are questioning museum narratives and practices. This page intentionally left blank 3 National Museums: Heritage and Identity For museums, and the museumizing imagination, are both profoundly political.

Anderson, , p. Because museums are generally perceived as the unbiased safe houses of knowledge, the concepts of authority and power become interrelated. Realizing the potential of museums as mechanisms of authority, states—and especially newly formed states—have created and used museums extensively to re shape national identity and memory. Aronsson et al. Therefore, national museums play a crucial role in re enforcing a sense of identity, defining the other, building symbolic boundaries, and thus defining the past and guiding the future.

In the last few years, we have seen a number of articles and books that support the notion that national museums are instrumental in establishing a sense of national identity. Some books are edited volumes that examine international case studies see for example Aronsson et al. This chapter builds on this literature by examining the interrelations among nations, conflict, and museums. We divide the history of Cypriot national museums into three main phases from their creation until today.

We argue that the political events that marked these phases played a crucial role in the kinds of museums established, the time of their appearance, and their narratives. But first, let us investigate the relationship among national museums, politics, and identity.

As we mentioned in the introduction of this book, Aronsson , who examined a number of national museums in various European countries, argued that state-making trajectories influence the establishment of national museums. He discusses the characteristics of three categories of nation-states: a empires and conglomerates such as Great Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Belgium; b smaller states with a long nation-state history such as Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland; and c newly emerging nation-states, such as the United States, Finland, Hungary, South Africa, Poland, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Cyprus.

Considerable existing literature has looked at the first category and successfully connected the development of national museums with the rise of nationalism in the nineteenth-century European nation-states. Large, now multicultural countries such as Great Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands had the chance to acquire objects from their colonies. Museums such as the Louvre or the British National Museums: Heritage and Identity 43 Museum adopt an encyclopedic approach in order to present the story of civilization to their local and international audiences.

In these new emerging nation-states, museums are employed to construct, reinforce, and project specific national narratives. Cyprus, as a former colony with a turbulent history, falls into this category, which means that the main aim of its national museums is to present the nation to its citizens mainly schoolchildren and to the world mainly tourists. This book builds on the existing literature and takes these arguments one step further by maintaining that museums in new emerging nation states amidst ethnic conflict are used to support ethnic instead of civic national identities see Chapter 2 for a discussion of ethnic vs.

This chapter attempts to demonstrate how national museums on both sides of the divide have been, and still are, supporting ethno-national narratives. Which Nation? Anderson defines a nation as an imagined political community that is limited to a specific place and whose members share a common sense of belonging.

National identity is then the experience of belonging to a community with specific traditions and rituals. This imagined community is often crystallized in museums, and especially national museums, with the help of museum objects, texts, and images.

First, nationhood assumes a horizontal sense of community without grouping members according to their class, gender, or political or sexual orientations. National museums in Cyprus seem to assume and adopt this horizontal sense of community. Furthermore, there is a growing population of immigrants who cannot identify with any of these labels. This ethnic and religious distinction is the most prominent one in the media and history books. National museums in Cyprus seem to reflect and reinforce the identity divisions made elsewhere.

Which National Museums? Indeed, what is considered to be cultural heritage by the two communities, and therefore worth preserving and promoting, varies dramatically. Since , both the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities have been responsible for museums in Cyprus. However, there is no collaboration or even communication between museums of the two communities. This strict separation and the lack of communication result in museums that often present exaggerated and contradictory narratives with an aim to reinforce a clear ethno-national identity, instead of a civic one.

Additionally, the management of these museums is located in departments of various governmental ministries. All museums examined in this chapter share these three characteristics and can be found in the official websites of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot authorities. In this case, other important museums could have been part of our analysis, such as museums created and run by local authorities e.

Leventis Gallery, Pierides Museum. Although these museums are not national in the sense of being financed directly by the State, some of them do have the aspiration of presenting and articulating dominant national realities and myths. Some of these museums will be discussed in the following chapters, so that this chapter can more clearly illustrate the interrelationship between political events and the birth of state-run museums. Another important problem we encountered in the definition of Cypriot national museums is the fact that, from a legal perspective, one can argue that the museums run by the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus trnc cannot be considered as national in any way, since their very legal entity is questioned.

Despite the fact that no country apart from Turkey recognizes the ministries and departments of trnc, we have chosen to consider them because they fit the description of national museums mentioned above. After all, comparing the museums of the two main ethnic communities can tell us more about what aspects of history and cultural 46 The Political Museum heritage are highlighted or silenced and where conflict is located.

What is omitted is often as important as what is presented. It is crucial to mention that by providing an overview of the creation of national museums in Cyprus and their relationship with key political events, unavoidably we reduce the complexities surrounding their individual development for the sake of making a specific overarching argument. However, we need to keep in mind that each individual museum mentioned here is a complex organism, and different political and socio-cultural forces have contributed to its creation and narratives.

For this reason, some of the most characteristic examples of each period are further discussed in detail in subsequent chapters of this book. Organizational Structure, Policies, and National Museums In the case of Cyprus, no single authority is responsible for overseeing national museums. The two main ethnic communities of the island employ different departments within different ministries to deal with museums.

As a result, the organizational structure of national museums in Cyprus is quite fragmented. Furthermore, due to the ongoing political conflicts and the fact that trnc is considered an illegal state, there is no communication or collaboration among the various ministries or departments that represent the two communities. Currently, in the southern part of the island, two different ministries assume responsibility for museums: the Department of Antiquities in the Ministry of Communications and Works2 is responsible for ancient, Byzantine, medieval, and Ottoman culture, while the Cultural Services of the Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for contemporary Cypriot culture3 Ministry of Education and Culture, In the northern part of the island, the Department of Antiquities and Museums of the Ministry of National Education and Culture is responsible for all museums, apart from two military-related museums for which it shares the responsibility with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Defense4 see Figure 3.

Placing the management of individual museums in the hands of governmental employees who are also responsible for other projects or institutions and within a vertical bureaucratic system has two direct effects. Even though museum professionals working in national museums may not consider their institutions as political instruments and may strive to follow the disciplinary and ethical guidelines of their field of expertise as well as provide service to the nation Aronsson et al.

Second, it restricts the influence of museum professionals, academics, and other informed stakeholders, who are nowadays more often looking to deconstruct and critique museum narratives than reaffirm them.

More specifically, the department is responsible for the management of the archaeological heritage of Cyprus and in particular for the following: … systematic and rescue excavations, as well as archaeological surveys; establishment, management and operation of archaeological museums; conservation, restoration, protection and promotion of Ancient Monuments […], archaeological sites and monuments of architectural heritage. Department of Antiquities, n.

As far as the museums are concerned, the Department of Antiquities, which was established in , is responsible for the management and running of the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia and for the district and local museums. The 48 The Political Museum Department of Antiquities is also responsible for a number of ethnographic museums. In , the department was reorganized and a new branch was created, which started to deal more actively with monuments of folk architecture and folk art.

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An articulated bus either a motor bus or trolleybus is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. An error has occurred. We've sent you an email so you can confirm your subscription. List your property. We have more than 70 million property reviews, all from real, verified guests.

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All apartments Apartments Spa hotels. Cyprus Apartments Hotels. Nicosia Apartments Hotels Car rental. Gaffiero Luxury Studio Reserve now. This apartment has a terrace, a living room and a flat-screen TV. Guests can also relax in the garden. Liberty Monument is 2, feet from the apartment, while Cyprus Museum is a minute walk away. What would you like to know? Enter your feedback I already have a booking with this property Submit.

Thank you for your time Your feedback will help us improve this feature for all of our customers Close. Missing some information? Show me more. Most popular amenities 1 swimming pool. Free WiFi. Free parking. Lock in a great price for your upcoming stay Get instant confirmation with FREE cancellation at most properties on our site! Availability We Price Match.

When would you like to stay at Gaffiero Luxury Studio? Reservations longer than 30 nights are not possible. Enter your dates to check availability. Your departure date is invalid. Check-in date. Check-out date. Closest Airports. Actual travel distances may vary. Are you missing any information about this area? Parking Free!

Parking garage Secure parking. Internet Free! Kitchen Freedom to eat when you want Kitchen Washing machine Kitchenette. Bathroom Private Bathroom. Room Amenities Extra comfort Air conditioning. Pets Pets are not allowed.

Swimming pool. Miscellaneous Air conditioning Smoke-free property. What topic s do you want to know more about? Hairdryer Bathroom features shower, bathtub, etc. Policies Pet policies Cancellation policies Couples policies are unmarried individuals allowed? Other Enter your feedback. Thanks for your help! Your opinion helps us figure out what kinds of info we should ask properties for. Back to property. Missing some info? House rules Gaffiero Luxury Studio takes special requests — add in the next step!

Child policies Children of all ages are welcome. There's no capacity for cribs at this property. This property doesn't offer extra beds. No age restriction There's no age requirement for check-in. Smoking Smoking is not allowed.

The fine print Please inform Gaffiero Luxury Studio of your expected arrival time in advance. You can use the Special Requests box when booking, or contact the property directly using the contact details in your confirmation. This property does not accommodate bachelor ette or similar parties. No review score yet Write a review. Enter your booking details Check your booking confirmation email to find your booking number and PIN.

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Granted leave of abseace , 57, 65 Passed in Greek, Higher Standard Amendments in.. Cobham, C. D;, at Larnaca Stevenson, Capt. Scott, nd Highlanders, to act. White, Lieut. Ohetwynd, Capt. S Cobham, C. Daft Lieut A. Fisher, R. King Inglis, Capt. King, M. Scott, nd Highlanders, at Kyrenia, Thompson. Penzichcs, C. Cattle from South Russia :- Five days quarantine if accompanied with certificate Cattle Disease, Sub-Inspector of, see "Cattle.

Basiliades, Elias, Vice-Consul at Limasol Ischomachos, Philotas, Consul at Larnaca.. Guiseppe, Consul at Larnaca Council, Orders in, see "0'"ff,en. Notice of re. Turkey in Europe : Memo. Pnge Fees, Rules and Forms. Skinner, J. Dr puty Omissione :- Inglis, Major J.

Tyser, C. Casolani, R Fisher, B Gordon, Capt. King King, M Law, A. Olive, L. Stevenson, Lieut. Thompson, H. Young, Lieut. TNnighfto : Casolani, R Interpreter to Judicial Commis. Nnnb::i ;- Izzet, Ahmct. Rossidcs, D. Intcn efr : Amirayan, G. J :Mirdleton, J. Templer, F. Seager, Capt. Limassol -fiddleton, J. Famagusta-c-Law, A. Hilmi, Muftizadeh Hassan Limassol -Rossides, D. Papadopoulo, C Kyrenia -Hakki, Hassan Mitzis, I.

Zekiayi, Hussein Nicosia -Pangiri, D. Limassol -Maori, B. Demetriades, D. Larnaca -lssmet, Ali Dandolo, C. Limassol -Kiamil, lhehmet Vondiz iano, G. Carletti, B. Izzi, Muftizade Papho -Raouf. Lionarisso - Poeros, C. Le:fkoniko -Oramby, M. Morphou -Saripoglou, P. Pera -Habbas, R. Lefka -Vamyk. E, IX. Khrysokhou-Michalides, A. Kelokedara -Vamyk, E. Kilani XIV. Cazas ibid. Craig, Surgeon R. Croker, Capt.

Registered a Medical Practitioner Coins to be received into Government Treasuries, and rates at which received Rupee, rate at which received and paid at Government Treasuries Importation of silver and copper coins prohibitej 36, 65 Date to which English pennies and half-pence and Turkish coins will be received into Government Treasuries Legal tender, Queen's Proclamation Date to come into force..

Ordinance amending laws affecting Regulation Ordinance, Ordinance for making Customs and Import duties matter of Regulation Ordinance providing for certain exemptions and drawbacks of Customs duty, draft Ordinance Ordinance passed to amend the law relating to the collection 97 of Excise duty on wine Ordinance to facilitate the collection of Customs and Excise duties, draft Ordinance passed Law to amend Customs and Excise duties, draft passed Passengers' baggage, Regulations respecting Refined Salt, Import duty fixed Notice of date of payment of duties on Wines and Spn-its manufactured in Customs Import duty removed :- Wheat, barley, oats, flour, chopped straw, cottonseed, and fodder for cattle tmpo a'ily..

Corby, w Taylor, W. Sub- Collector Limassoi : Ongley, P. Gaffieri, C. Mackay, W. Pantilides, T Deaths, Registration of, see "Registi ation. Papho District, redistribution. Appointed Principal Forest Officer.. Douum, size of Mcmber of the Executive Council See also" Sohools, Inspeotor of. I l Biddulph, Col. B "Hcoeieer-Uoncrai. Cobhnm, 0. D to act as Commissioner, Lamaca Granted vacation leave Cookson, A. Edridge Lieut-Ool. Fyler, Licut.

Greaves, Col. Hackett, Col. King Ho! Kellner, G: W. Leach, Col. Marsh, W. Ogilvy, Lieut. Phillips, H. L Phillpotts, Col. Swettcnham, J. Taylor, W. T Warren, Lieut. King Herbert, St. Holbech, Lieut. Sapte, Capt. Exhibitions Amsterdam, London, In ventions, 88i Appointed Civil ifargeon at Laruaca to act as l:lanitary Commissioner.. Appointed Assistant. Issue of plants not required by Forest Department Ordinance amending.

Prinoipal Forest Officer :- Madon, P l? D: Forest 0. Phillipides, P c. Mustapha, Omer Hadji. Pnpidi, D Pappadopoulo, s.. Rifaat, Ahmed. Sadyk, Arnaud. Yussuf bin Ali Forms of Court, see "Court-. Appointed British Postmaster Registered a ljedical Practitioner Fyler, Lieut. Pier Master, Limassol Game, Ordinance regulating the killing of Appointed Government Gardener at Famagusta.

Granted leave of absence Gordon, Capt. Government Engineer, Appointment of Maquay, Licnt. P Brown, o. Assistnt, Appointment of Kenyon, Lieut. Samuel Chnrles Norton, R. Ordinance prohibiting the carrying of without a licence 8 Repayment of Import duty on exportation within five years Gunpowder:- Bye-Laws, Municipality of Nicosia, as to importation of, into the town Importation into Larnaca permitted Appointed Member of Commercial Court, Larnaea Hadji Pavlou, ace "Pa'l:lou.

N , 3 Mackay, W. Hassan Appo'i. See also ", Jedical Ojfioe a. Leger A. Appointed Private Secretary U:, to be C. Bovill, E. Legal authenticity remains with the official Norwegian version as published in Norsk Lovtidend. Jurisdiction of Civil Courts All persons belonging to. It is intended for information and reference purposes only. Legal authenticity remains with the. But it is a thing to which a man can grow accustomed, as he can to other. Extract of Rule 4 1 b of the Right to Information Act Article Law Enforcement.

Policemen appointed. A city is authorized to appoint a chief of police and to employ other police officers who may reside outside the corporate limits of the city. Short title and commencement. Disapplication of Cap. Bryce, bylaw counsel Current to: May 6, Introduction Article I Legislative Branch 1. The legislative branch is divided into two parts or two houses which are. Please note: The text below is a translation of the original Norwegian Act. Should any doubt arise, the Norwegian text of the Act is valid and binding.

Nicosia -Pangiri, D. Limassol -Maori, B. Demetriades, D. Larnaca -lssmet, Ali Dandolo, C. Limassol -Kiamil, lhehmet Vondiz iano, G. Carletti, B. Izzi, Muftizade Papho -Raouf. Lionarisso - Poeros, C. Le:fkoniko -Oramby, M.

Morphou -Saripoglou, P. Pera -Habbas, R. Lefka -Vamyk. E, IX. Khrysokhou-Michalides, A. Kelokedara -Vamyk, E. Kilani XIV. Cazas ibid. Craig, Surgeon R. Croker, Capt. Registered a Medical Practitioner Coins to be received into Government Treasuries, and rates at which received Rupee, rate at which received and paid at Government Treasuries Importation of silver and copper coins prohibitej 36, 65 Date to which English pennies and half-pence and Turkish coins will be received into Government Treasuries Legal tender, Queen's Proclamation Date to come into force..

Ordinance amending laws affecting Regulation Ordinance, Ordinance for making Customs and Import duties matter of Regulation Ordinance providing for certain exemptions and drawbacks of Customs duty, draft Ordinance Ordinance passed to amend the law relating to the collection 97 of Excise duty on wine Ordinance to facilitate the collection of Customs and Excise duties, draft Ordinance passed Law to amend Customs and Excise duties, draft passed Passengers' baggage, Regulations respecting Refined Salt, Import duty fixed Notice of date of payment of duties on Wines and Spn-its manufactured in Customs Import duty removed :- Wheat, barley, oats, flour, chopped straw, cottonseed, and fodder for cattle tmpo a'ily..

Corby, w Taylor, W. Sub- Collector Limassoi : Ongley, P. Gaffieri, C. Mackay, W. Pantilides, T Deaths, Registration of, see "Registi ation. Papho District, redistribution. Appointed Principal Forest Officer.. Douum, size of Mcmber of the Executive Council See also" Sohools, Inspeotor of.

I l Biddulph, Col. B "Hcoeieer-Uoncrai. Cobhnm, 0. D to act as Commissioner, Lamaca Granted vacation leave Cookson, A. Edridge Lieut-Ool. Fyler, Licut. Greaves, Col. Hackett, Col. King Ho! Kellner, G: W. Leach, Col. Marsh, W. Ogilvy, Lieut. Phillips, H. L Phillpotts, Col.

Swettcnham, J. Taylor, W. T Warren, Lieut. King Herbert, St. Holbech, Lieut. Sapte, Capt. Exhibitions Amsterdam, London, In ventions, 88i Appointed Civil ifargeon at Laruaca to act as l:lanitary Commissioner.. Appointed Assistant. Issue of plants not required by Forest Department Ordinance amending.

Prinoipal Forest Officer :- Madon, P l? D: Forest 0. Phillipides, P c. Mustapha, Omer Hadji. Pnpidi, D Pappadopoulo, s.. Rifaat, Ahmed. Sadyk, Arnaud. Yussuf bin Ali Forms of Court, see "Court-. Appointed British Postmaster Registered a ljedical Practitioner Fyler, Lieut.

Pier Master, Limassol Game, Ordinance regulating the killing of Appointed Government Gardener at Famagusta. Granted leave of absence Gordon, Capt. Government Engineer, Appointment of Maquay, Licnt. P Brown, o. Assistnt, Appointment of Kenyon, Lieut. Samuel Chnrles Norton, R. Ordinance prohibiting the carrying of without a licence 8 Repayment of Import duty on exportation within five years Gunpowder:- Bye-Laws, Municipality of Nicosia, as to importation of, into the town Importation into Larnaca permitted Appointed Member of Commercial Court, Larnaea Hadji Pavlou, ace "Pa'l:lou.

N , 3 Mackay, W. Hassan Appo'i. See also ", Jedical Ojfioe a. Leger A. Appointed Private Secretary U:, to be C. Bovill, E. Legal authenticity remains with the official Norwegian version as published in Norsk Lovtidend. Jurisdiction of Civil Courts All persons belonging to. It is intended for information and reference purposes only. Legal authenticity remains with the. But it is a thing to which a man can grow accustomed, as he can to other.

Extract of Rule 4 1 b of the Right to Information Act Article Law Enforcement. Policemen appointed. A city is authorized to appoint a chief of police and to employ other police officers who may reside outside the corporate limits of the city. Short title and commencement. Disapplication of Cap. Bryce, bylaw counsel Current to: May 6, Introduction Article I Legislative Branch 1. The legislative branch is divided into two parts or two houses which are. Please note: The text below is a translation of the original Norwegian Act.

Should any doubt arise, the Norwegian text of the Act is valid and binding. Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus as an independent sovereign country. The Sovereign Base Areas. Operation of existing. C A Bill entitled AN ACT to provide for the treatment of persons in possession of small quantities of prohibited drugs for personal use and for other measures for the rehabilitation of persons suffering. NOTE: This consolidation is not official.

Amendments have been. Inebriates Act, Detention of habitual drunkard guilty of crime. Detention of habitual. LAW NO. Controlling officer: expenditure under this Head will be accounted for as follows: Permanent Secretary for the Civil Service Subheads , , , , , , , , and Registrar of. Short title. Small business. Approved small business. Given on the 24th day of May B. The County Attorney's duties set by the Iowa Code include: 1.

Diligently enforce or cause to be enforced in the county, state laws and county ordinances, violations of which may be commenced or prosecuted. House Proposal of Amendment S. Paper No. Log in Registration. Search for. Size: px. Start display at page:. Neal Pitts 4 years ago Views:. View more. Similar documents. Act on the Supervision of Financial Institutions etc. More information.

Jurisdiction of Civil Courts All persons belonging to More information. For more information concerning the history of this Act, please see the Table of Public Acts. Legal authenticity remains with the More information. From Settlement to Confederation. But it is a thing to which a man can grow accustomed, as he can to other More information. Chief Judge of the State of New York.

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Approved small business More information. August Report No. Chapter

The IMF reportedly fears Cyprus is about to take on such a massive loan - per cent of its GDP - that it will drown under the weight of paying the interest alone.

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