What a difference a Supreme Court ruling makes. When Goodell sent his letter, the NFL had no way to capitalize on sports gambling, which was allowed in just four states—Nevada, Oregon, Delaware, and Montana—that had been exempted from the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of , passed by Congress to limit the spread of sports gambling.
But when the Court ruled in May that the law was unconstitutional, states rushed to legalize sports betting, and after just a smidgen of hesitation, professional leagues have jumped in. Last week, Goodell announced that NFL teams in the 14 states that have legalized sports betting can now host stadium betting lounges, where gamblers can gather, learn the odds on games around the league, and bet through apps on their phones.
The rapid pace at which the NFL has embraced what it once preached against reflects a broader social change, as states desperate for revenues rush to legalize many forms of gambling. Around the world, state-sanctioned sports betting has spread rapidly in the last 20 years, especially in Europe. The experience there, chronicled in dozens of studies, confirms that Goodell was right when he worried about social effects. Studies have found that the normalization of gambling through frequent advertising and sponsorship deals with sports teams has sparked growing rates of online betting by young people and rising rates of addiction among teens, though most venues officially restrict participation to adults.
Experience elsewhere, however, shows that the league, and society in general, needs to do much more to mitigate the impact on the young of our rapid acceptance of gambling. The rise of legal gambling in Europe has precipitated intense scrutiny of its effects.
A review published in the Journal of Gambling Studies found 44 studies on youth gambling, many focusing on European nations. The studies show that, in many countries, as many as half of all adolescents report gambling in the past year; in Iceland, nearly 80 percent had placed bets, and in Lithuania, the number was 70 percent.
The rate of frequent gamblers—those gambling at least once a week—is about 10 percent to 15 percent. Though some of these young people report gambling casually among friends, the incidence of gambling on legalized, government-sanctioned sites is alarming.
In Britain, 68 percent of those who bet said that they played slots, and 47 percent bet on the lottery. Online gambling is growing rapidly among the young, in part because they are more comfortable in this environment but also because they can evade age restrictions more easily. In Greece, 37 percent of young gamblers bet online; in Switzerland, 55 percent. Kids are gambling more not merely because they see more of it in society, but because advocates increasingly pitch gambling as a social good.
The NFL and other leagues, as well the states themselves, promise to build restrictions into the legalization of sports gambling to mute its influence among the young. Yet, these curbs are largely ineffective, because once the campaign over legalization recedes, few people pay close attention to its implementation. But advertising and marketing of sports betting has become so pervasive that it now touches every part of sports—like, say, soccer.
Whereas it is premature to claim that gambling via the Internet creates an inherent propensity to engage in excessive gambling e. Internet-based gambling is increasingly being viewed as a conduit for problem gambling Gainsbury et al.
If online betting occurs sporadically or in a social context e. On the other hand, if online sports betting facilitates different patterns of use e. Hing and colleagues reported the first peer-reviewed publication of a study that examined risk factors specific to problematic gambling as a function of different forms of online gambling. The background characteristics for problematic online sports betting were similar to those for problematic online race betting, with both groups being significantly younger, more educated, and engaged in significantly fewer forms of gambling than were online electronic gaming machine players.
Although not a vast literature, some published studies have examined whether the prevalence of gambling problems among mobile-based bettors differs from those who prefer land-based sports betting. Gainsbury and colleagues examined the association of PGSI scores as a function of different preferred ways to access Internet-based gambling offline, PC, mobile device. Bettors who preferred mobile gambling did so more frequently and scored significantly higher on the PGSI compared with sports bettors who preferred to wager at a land-based venue.
Convergent evidence suggests that impulsive-like betting e. Live in-play betting was a recurrent characteristic of problem gamblers studied in the bwin sample 1, subscribers , in which 11 of 16 online games had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder LaPlante et al. However, after controlling for breadth of gambling involvement the number of games an individual plays , only live-action in-play sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems defined by a web-based version of the Brief Biosocial Gambling Screen.
Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater in-play live-action betting. Lopez-Gonzalez and colleagues b used the PGSI to classify problem gambling groups from an online survey of sports bettors. Micro-betting, in which players are able to bet on an almost immediate outcome during a live sports event, was found to be similarly problematic.
Micro-bettors were found to be younger, well educated, and single and to participate in multiple types of gambling. It is likely that bettors who experience more problems with in-sports betting are attracted to the immediacy e. In addition, this form of wagering facilitates chasing behaviours, common among problem and disordered gamblers.
Recent reports from the Fantasy Sports Trade Association estimate that A fantasy sport is a type of game that is often played by using the Internet or within a social group, in which participants assemble imaginary or virtual teams of real players of a professional sport. Participants act as team owner or general manager by drafting, trading, and cutting players, analogous to real sports. Drayer, Shapiro, Dwyer, Morse, and White found that participation in fantasy sports was associated with frequent watching of live sports, sports wagering on real games, in-play betting, and identification with a team.
In addition, continuous scores on the degree of fantasy game participation were significantly associated with severity scores on the PGSI. Nower, Volberg, and Caler reported that among a sample of 1, adults in New Jersey, In a study of college student athletes, Marchica and Derevensky reported a steady increase across the survey data points , , and of fantasy sports playing among National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA student athletes.
Fantasy sports gamblers wagered significantly more frequently and endorsed more gambling disorder criteria from the DSM-5 than did those who did not play fantasy sports Martin et al. A survey of over 7, high school students from Ohio found that 7. Sports wagering remains a popular form of gambling by adolescents. The earlier cited Ohio school survey found that the rate of prior-year sports betting was All forms of sports gambling activities were significantly associated with problem gambling status odds ratio range: 2.
As is the case with adolescents, older surveys of college students indicate that sports betting is a popular form of gambling e. Fantasy sports participation was the focus of a survey by Martin and Nelson Logistic regression analyses indicated that for the full sample, sports fantasy participants regardless of whether they played for money were over 5 times more likely to endorse at least one DSM-5 criteria for a gambling disorder American Psychiatric Association, compared with those with no fantasy sports participation.
Interestingly, male sports fantasy participants who did not play for money did not have an elevated likelihood of endorsing any of the DSM gambling disorder criteria. Student athletes represent a significant subpopulation of college students in North America.
These zero-tolerance guidelines include prohibitions on soliciting or accepting a bet, on providing information concerning intercollegiate athletics about a person or group who may use it for gambling purposes, and on involvement in betting pools and fantasy sports. Despite these restrictions, several studies consistently show that rates of problem or disordered gambling among college student athletes are higher than those of the general population 2.
There are indications, however, that the rate may be decreasing. Survey results from the NCAA report provide detailed information on sports wagering by college athletes Richard et al. Empirical data pertaining to gambling by professional athletes have been limited to European studies. Grall-Bronnec and colleagues assessed 1, professional athletes professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Not surprisingly, former athletes were more likely to wager on the sport they had once played. Older prevalence studies on sports betting most certainly underestimate its popularity, given that these studies were conducted in a gambling era that is largely distinct from the current sports betting landscape characterized by expanding sports betting options and new technologies.
Thus, there is a need for comprehensive contemporary studies. The association between method and modes to place a sports bets e. Moreover, the possible causal link between sports betting and problem gambling, as well as the additional harm posed by the presence of individual- and technology-based risk factors, cannot be determined from correlational studies, which is the state of nearly all studies that we reviewed.
As a result, we suggest the need for longitudinal studies. The study of how public health responses may alter the sports betting landscape is another important area of assessment. For example, does banning micro-event betting reduce the risk of developing a gambling problem? Promotions may have specific effects on problem gamblers Hing, Lamont, et al.
Clinical studies are a significant research need. Historically, they have suggested that it is rare for those with a gambling disorder to identify sports betting as the preferred game e. Yet, the few clinical studies that have been more recently published suggest a strong link between sports betting and harms.
Online sports bettors made greater maximum bets and incurred increased financial debts sooner compared with offline-only bettors. Among disordered gamblers receiving treatment in Florida, 8. The characteristics of PGSBs suggest that interventions should target young adult males and take into account the higher educational and income levels of this group.
More research is needed to establish optimal intervention approaches to discourage problem gamblers from engaging in high-risk sports betting such as online and micro-betting, to help them avoid sports betting inducements e. Adjustments to assessment and treatment approaches are needed to meet the needs of this newest generation of individuals with a gambling disorder resulting from sports betting. Additional research needs are as follows: 1 methodological designs that isolate problem behaviours associated with sports betting from possible links to other forms of gambling; 2 research that delves deeper than the previous literature did into psychological, social, and cultural variables linked to sports betting; 3 examination of the origins and extent of sports betting by children and adolescents; 4 exploration of the differential influences of possible functional values of gambling behaviour e.
Sports are an important part of many cultures and it seems likely that sports wagering will continue to grow, given the significant technological advances; governments that permit, regulate, and license sports wagering operators; and many major professional sports leagues that partner with gambling operators. The characteristics of typical sports gamblers are that they are male, younger, and unmarried; they have peers who gamble on sports, a perception and belief that they are knowledgeable about sports, and an increased likelihood of substance use alcohol and drugs ; and they engage in multiple forms of gambling.
These characteristics of sport bettors are also associated with those who show harms from sports betting. Features of sports betting related to gambling problems are excessive sports wagering, mobile wagering, micro-betting instantaneous and live propositional betting , and fantasy sports wagering.
The expectation of a significant increase in sports wagering and its concomitant related problems places attention on policy makers and regulators, as well as on clinical service providers, to adjust assessment and treatment approaches to meet the growing needs of this new generation of individuals with a gambling disorder. Our review of the literature supports the viewpoint that jurisdictions that permit legal sports betting have valid concerns about a growing culture of high-risk sports bettors Gordon et al.
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Become an author Sign up as a reader Sign in. What needs attention is the lack of opportunity that drives sports betting. About 47 million adults in the US are expected to gamble on March Madness this year. A growing share of the bets will actually be legal. New research has found that more than a third of Australian sports gamblers are making micro-bets using offshore operators. And this type of betting is strongly linked to problem gambling. Studies looking at a cross section of the UK population have long recognised FOBTs as contributors to harmful gambling.
With bettors clamoring for an edge, legacy media outlets could add a gambling beat to their daily sports coverage — or risk losing out. Many states are pondering making gambling on sports legal after the US Supreme Court overturned a federal ban. But is the industry really worth as much as some say it is? But those hoping for a boon in tax revenues could be sorely mistaken: Sports betting isn't as lucrative as it's often portrayed to be.
Mobile money transfers have been a great asset. But the rise of online betting could threaten its contribution. Gambling has impacts on many aspects of life — including employment, income and wealth. We are an internationally recognized leader in betting information services. The key point to understand is that the difference between winning and losing over the long-term is measured by only a few percentage points. At Sports Insights, we define success as consistently winning over the long term.
This page offers sports bettors a list of published academic research articles to help you win. Visit this page often for new betting research articles and ideas. The staff at Sports Insights is constantly researching the sports betting market, developing new and cutting edge sports betting systems. Solid betting research should always form the foundation of any serious sports betting system.
We examined some of the better known works in hopes of educating sports bettors. They also believe that the inefficiency they discover will fade out over time. Unlike the stock market, the sports betting marketplace produces clear winners or losers based on measurable outcomes sporting events. By applying some of the same economic tools and theories used in the financial world, we evaluate the sports betting marketplace for inefficiencies.
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In Britain, 68 percent of those who bet said that they played slots, and 47 percent bet on the lottery. Online gambling is growing rapidly among the young, in part because they are more comfortable in this environment but also because they can evade age restrictions more easily. In Greece, 37 percent of young gamblers bet online; in Switzerland, 55 percent.
Kids are gambling more not merely because they see more of it in society, but because advocates increasingly pitch gambling as a social good. The NFL and other leagues, as well the states themselves, promise to build restrictions into the legalization of sports gambling to mute its influence among the young.
Yet, these curbs are largely ineffective, because once the campaign over legalization recedes, few people pay close attention to its implementation. But advertising and marketing of sports betting has become so pervasive that it now touches every part of sports—like, say, soccer.
In the top tier of English soccer, the Premier League, where sponsors buy space on team jerseys, nine of 20 teams have sold shirt space to betting companies. Players too young to gamble legally themselves wear these jerseys, and one newspaper found that promotional tie-ins on team websites included advertising on pages aimed at young fans. England is also considering banning promotions that give first-time clients free bets—something increasingly common in the United States.
Much of this is spurred by the rise of problem gambling, including among youth. Within five years of the expansion of legal gambling, the number of problem bettors increased to , from ,, according to the British Gambling Prevalence Survey. Since the initial debates starting in the s about legalizing lotteries and then casino games a decade later, advocates have argued that the industry and government, working together, can ameliorate the bad social outcomes of legal gambling.
But plenty of evidence suggests that legalization of virtually any type of gambling increases its frequency, and that promises to increase programs for those who develop problems fall short. Betting parlors on-site at sporting events, unthinkable a few years ago, are just one sign of how rapidly the landscape in America is changing—and how few people have thought through what the social cost may be.
Send a question or comment using the form below. This message may be routed through support staff. More detailed message would go here to provide context for the user and how to proceed. City Journal search. City Journal is a publication of Manhattan Institute. Search search. More broadly, research into the impact of gambling advertising indicates that it may trigger impulses to gamble, may increase already high levels of gambling and may make it more difficult for problem gamblers in particular, to gamble less or not gamble at all [ 29 , 30 ].
For example, researchers have found that sports betting advertising used during sporting matches stimulates a range of positive, negative, and neutral affects in sports betters [ 32 ]. Researchers have also demonstrated that specific forms of marketing promotions such as inducements may be particularly influential in stimulating problematic betting behaviours [ 33 ]. Marketing research also demonstrates how advertisers may seek to develop upon existing cultural symbols, behaviours, and contexts, with an aim of embedding their product within these behaviours and creating new subcultures and identities associated with that product [ 34 — 36 ].
Researchers have partly documented this process in relation to sports betting advertising. They have analysed the extent to which gambling industry marketing seeks to align sports betting with the culturally valued aspects of being a sports fan—including mateship, support for your team, fan loyalty, thrill, winning, and power [ 8 ].
Deans et al. However, few studies have sought to explore how marketing strategies may influence the gambling attitudes and consumption intentions of populations. The research was guided by four research questions. Do specific forms of promotions encourage young men to gamble more frequently and on events that they would not otherwise bet on? Are there specific strategies that may have the potential to reduce or prevent the risks or harms posed by the marketing for these products?
The results presented in this paper were part of a broader study investigating the sports betting attitudes and behaviours of young men [ 9 , 31 ]. The research used a constructivist grounded theory CGT approach [ 37 ], acknowledging the active co-creation of knowledge that exists between researchers and research participants.
Individuals each have their own socially constructed reality, and the research findings therefore represent a collation of interpretations of multiple lived realities, mutually constructed by the researchers and participants in this study [ 38 ]. Such an approach considers and values the opinions and experiences of all participants, while attempting to reconstruct their experiences in the most faithful way possible [ 39 ].
Participants were recruited using purposive [ 40 ] and theoretical [ 41 ] sampling techniques. All participants were either current or recent sports bettors, with the exception of one participant who identified as experiencing previous problems with sports betting.
While this participant no longer gambled on sports or any other product, the research team chose to include him given his personal experiences with sports betting and to ensure a range of experiences were included in the study sample. We employed a number of strategies to recruit participants including posts on social media Twitter and Facebook , advertisements on gambling forums, flyers in gyms and in gym newsletters , and a newspaper article with information about the study.
As the study progressed, we relied on snowball techniques to recruit the remainder of participants. Potential participants were given information about the study and gave their verbal consent prior to completing the interview. The majority of interviews were conducted by author 1, with some conducted by author 2.
Demographic information, including age, occupation, highest level of education, and postcode were collected. Recruitment for the study was stopped when the researchers were confident of a diversity of experiences and opinions to illustrate a number of constructs associated with our research questions and theoretical lens [ 44 ]. Initial data coding, analyses, and interpretation was conducted by authors 1 and 2. We used open-coding techniques to identify narratives that specifically related to the extent and content of sports betting marketing in each of the transcripts.
We read and re-read each transcript and listened to the audio of each interview , employing a constant comparative method [ 41 ] to identify the similarities and differences between each interview and to inductively categorise the data [ 45 ].
This allowed for emerging themes of inquiry to be identified and guided how best to explore these in subsequent interviews. Most of the marketing strategies for sports betting mentioned by participants were not in environments specifically designed for gambling. Rather, they included television advertising during both regular programming and during sports; at sporting matches; on radio; billboards; public transport, and as pop-ups on social media sites.
In gambling environments, participants mentioned that they had seen advertising on mobile sports betting apps, and within clubs and pubs, which included sports bars, and specific betting facilities. Others stated that the constant exposure to marketing for sports betting products also removed the stigma traditionally associated with betting by creating a perception that gambling on sports was a normal activity:.
Participants described the impact of saturated marketing on the normalisation of betting in sports. However, others, including some at higher risk levels of gambling harm, described the impact of constantly seeing promotions for inducements and incentives to gamble.
The following moderate risk gambler directly attributed the embedding of gambling within sporting cultures to the constant push of gambling products and services throughout sporting matches:. Similarly, the following participant described the familiarity of seeing very specific promotions for sports betting products when viewing sports events.
In particular, he described the specific informational campaigns run by betting companies which were designed to teach individuals about the range of different ways to engage in betting via mobile technologies:. All that stuff is in the marketing. Participants described the role of sponsorship deals between industry and sporting codes as creating a symbolic alignment between gambling and sports.
Several participants described the way in which implicit endorsement of betting by teams and codes contributed to the normalisation of gambling:. Every team is sponsored by a gambling agency. Participants described the subtle ways in which marketing for sports betting had also become embedded within sports-based commentary before and during sporting matches, as well as in sports-based entertainment shows. Others described how broadcasters would cross to a bookmaker for the odds of the game—not only on the match outcome but also on individual players and specific statistics associated with the game.
Some stated that this changed the terminology and discourse associated with the match, with bookmakers and sports commentators encouraging fans to view the match through a gambling lens:. Most participants stated that crossing to bookmakers throughout the match had become such a normal part of the game that they rarely thought to challenge the presence of these forms of promotions:.
You have your commentators reviewing games and they talk about the odds and who is favourite to the extent whereby they sometimes cross over to someone who gives you the odds on who is trending well. I think it becomes so in your face that we just accept it as normal now. For example, one participant described how watching sports and following a team was no longer solely about emotion and passion but was also about backing their team through betting:. Not only [do you] back them with your emotions, you back them financially.
The majority of participants believed that young men were the key target market for gambling companies and that marketing had played an important role in shaping the gambling identities of young men. Participants described a range of marketing appeal strategies that they believed were particularly influential in shaping gambling as a part of sports fan behaviour.
The most common was the use of appeals and imagery that centred upon peer belonging and mateship. A number of participants spoke about how advertisements sought to align what they already valued and appreciated in sports, with that of betting.
For example, the following participant described how effective he thought sports betting marketing strategies were in linking gambling to friendship and comradery. Some participants stated that they could relate and identify their own relationships and betting behaviours to those portrayed in advertisements:.
The following comment suggests that these marketing tactics created a strong positive cultural narrative for young men about the role of gambling in their peer groups and their collective identities surrounding sport:. Like you can be the cool guy that won money and this is what you should be doing - you should be gambling, you should be doing this.
Participants argued that it was extremely problematic that individuals could not watch sports without being exposed to the marketing for sports betting and felt frustrated that sports broadcasts were overloaded with betting promotions.
A few described switching off the television when they felt too pressured to gamble because of betting promotions:. If you actually analyse it, the value is there. I consider it a smart and reasonably safe, more safe bet. Participants also believed that they could maximise their winnings through large sign-up bonus bets.
Many conceptualised these incentives as free money, with these types of inducements being the most influential mechanism in stimulating the opening of betting accounts. Many described that while they initially thought they would open accounts, use the bets, and then walk away, this was the first step into long-term patterns of gambling:.
But obviously I never walked away. However, other participants believed that bonus bets and a competitive gambling environment meant that they could take advantage of deals between bookmakers. There was evidence that inducements stimulated some participants to continue gambling and to gamble when they otherwise would not have gambled.
For example, even though the following participant knew that inducements were a clever marketing tactic, they still influenced his decisions to place bets and how much he would gamble:. Some specific incentives created a perception amongst participants that they were more in control of their gambling. Some believed that placing bets on these players gave them a greater degree of control over the outcome of the markets that they gambled on and that incentives would protect their money even if the bet was unsuccessful:.
Probably the cash back ones. You get your money back. Others described the impact of inducements tied to the emotion associated with large sporting events. This was particularly the case for individuals with moderate- or high-risk levels of gambling. Another stated that push notifications via his mobile phone, which offered a range of promotions, led him to bet more than he normally would have done during the State of Origin NRL match:.
The Origin a couple of weeks ago is a good example. And with those particular games I certainly bet a lot more then what I normally would, based on those specials and promotions. This study sought to investigate how the marketing of sports betting products may influence betting attitudes and consumption behaviours which ultimately may lead to harm.
The study also sought to consider potential strategies to reduce the risks posed by these marketing strategies for young male sports fans. It is clear from this study that most participants recall the marketing for sports betting in environments which are not specifically designed for gambling, and this was most notably the case during live broadcasts of Australian sports.
This is the phase of cultural alignment that McCracken [ 34 ] described as taking cultural meanings within the social world, and applying them to products. Marketing for sports betting products is no longer confined to specific gambling environments such as bookmaker websites or mobile applications and gambling venues.
Rather, the marketing for these products has entered everyday community and media spaces, which have not traditionally been aligned with gambling. We would argue this is increasingly similar to betting being core to the experience of horse racing. Marketing strategies that may shift the cultural meanings associated with gambling and sports. Legend: Theoretical model of how marketing strategies may influence a shift in the cultural meanings associated with gambling and sports, as well as the distinct promotional factors that may influence gambling consumption behaviours.
However, it is not only the placement of sports betting advertisements within sports but the saturated nature of these promotions that has exacerbated a cultural alignment between betting and sports and the subsequent risks associated with betting. This raises an important issue for policy makers and regulators in relation to the prevention of harm. While marketing for some forms of gambling e.
Recognising the potential for harm, some countries, such as the UK, are now considering the prohibition of gambling promotions before the watershed the point in time after which programmes with adult content may be broadcast , as part of a comprehensive suite of harm reduction strategies associated with sports betting products [ 46 ]. In Australia, the state of Victoria is considering the restriction of betting promotions on public transport and infrastructure near schools [ 47 ]. This study suggests that policies aiming to denormalise gambling as an inherent part of sports must consider significant restrictions on the volume of advertising during sports programmes, sporting matches, and within non-gambling environments at any time of the day.
The study indicates that there are specific marketing mechanisms that intensify the symbolic relationship between gambling and sports. We would argue that the endorsement of betting by sporting codes particularly via sponsorship relationships and broadcasters has a significant influence in betting becoming a meaningful part of the life of sports fans. In part, this is because endorsement by these agencies contributes to the removal of the negative social stigma once associated with betting, embedding it as a valuable social norm for the fans of sporting codes.
Norms are regulated, in part, by the images and narratives created about sports betting by sporting codes and sporting commentary panels often comprised of sporting heroes. Given the reported influence of these types of marketing by young men in our sample, and also from studies with children [ 13 ], we would argue that the embedding of commentary-based marketing in sports is clearly an issue that requires urgent consideration by governments and sporting authorities to prevent risk and the potential for harm.
The results also suggest that very specific forms of promotions, such as inducements and incentives, play a significant role in establishing betting on sports as part of consumer behaviour. These strategies must be of central focus in any regulatory efforts to prevent and reduce harm. Inducements and incentives minimised the perceptions of risk associated with sports betting, promoted feelings of control over the betting outcomes, and encouraged individuals to open more accounts with gambling companies and gamble more than they normally would, including on events on which they might not otherwise gamble.
Even when participants acknowledged that these types of promotions were a clever marketing tactic that could increase the risks associated with gambling, they still had a strong influence over gambling consumption intentions. Inducements are not a new marketing phenomenon for the gambling industry and are used on a range of different gambling products to stimulate consumption [ 48 ].
However, our research contributes to growing evidence about the significant influence that these types of marketing promotions may have in encouraging risky gambling behaviours. We would also support the development of sustained and adequately funded public education programmes to complement the legislative approaches already suggested for policy makers.
These programmes should be developed independent of the gambling industry and related interests, emphasise the harms associated with their products, and expose approaches used by the industry. There is encouraging evidence on the value of mass media campaigns in addressing a range of public health problems [ 49 ], and the findings from this study should assist in providing formative research for the development of such campaigns related to gambling.
In addition to this, further research should also seek to explore the influence of marketing on the betting attitudes and behaviours of other population subgroups, including female sports fans, and younger populations, such as children and adolescents. Finally, it is important to consider the study limitations.
Despite participants having gambled on a range of products, the results of our study may not be generalisable to young men who bet on other sports, horses, or sporting events e. Second, the sample was skewed towards young men who were educated and living in more affluent socio-economic neighbourhoods. Finally, in this study, we did not aim to diversify the sample with regard to ethnicity. This research suggests that marketing plays a strong role in the normalisation of gambling in sports and in encouraging gambling consumption intentions and behaviours.
For the young men in our study, the emotional investment in the game, and the ways in which they 'consume sport', for the most part, now included betting on the match. This is problematic as there is an absence of overarching cultural and organisational structures to restrict sports betting promotions.
There is now a clear industry presence in non-gambling and community settings. Policy makers must begin to consider the lag between evolving gambling landscapes and sophisticated marketing strategies used by the gambling industry and sporting codes to promote gambling products, and effective harm reduction measures in order to protect populations from gambling harm. Problem gambling and family violence: prevalence and patterns in treatment seekers.
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