I've read in a few trip reviews about people winning hundreds of dollars on the penny slots. When most people **max bet on penny slots** about winning big on pennies they max bet on penny slots go on a roll and have betting games large wins coupled with some small to mid sized wins. I go with a set amount of money to have fun, and if I win that makes it even more fun I would love to see these mystical slots where max bet is only five coins because it's been ages since I've seen those - max bet seems to be more 10 to 20 coins per line lately. A good payoff for a single coin per line bettor on a penny slot is a hundred dollars or so.

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They are somewhat efficient on average and for big markets. However, betting markets are very small in comparison to the financial ones for example, and this is an important factor determining the efficiency of a market. And even on large markets there are some inefficiencies enduring over long time periods. In fact, that even applies over financial markets, as large and sophisticated as they are.

Sometimes the crowd is wise, but sometimes it is led by nothing more than its animal instincts. If you asked me the same question a few years ago, I would have probably given the exact opposite answer, but the more I am dealing with betting and financial markets, the more I am convinced that they are way more irrational than most people imagine. I am sure my answer will be very similar to many on your expert panel as to beat the sports betting markets is very tough indeed and the odds on all markets you can get a decent stake on are hugely efficient.

Most people when they start out betting learn this the hard way as they over-estimate their own skill level and of course the impact of the bookmakers in-built vig or over-round into the markets they bet in. There is even a term for this - illusory superiority and many bookmakers prey on it in their advertising.

Ultimately it takes a huge amount of skill and expertise and that's before we get into the psychological barriers and difficulties all profitable bettors face and must go through. Hence our focus on tipsters as whilst the vast majority of people don't have what it takes to make money betting - there are a growing number of professional punters who sell access to their advice through tipping services.

Don't be put off by the negative vibes on the industry that pervade, especially on social media. Close twitter down and you will find plenty of tipsters including those we advocate at SBC who are worthy of your attention. With any market, the more participants, the more efficient it becomes. The same applies in sports betting.

Obscure Markets: Consider obscure sports markets that attract only a few bettors, where very little information circulates about the events. For example, low league Ice Hockey. In these markets, there's little money driving the odds in any direction. Bookmakers will speculate on where to set their lines, while sports traders might take a lone and equally cagey view on the situation. Without a sufficient flow of money, these markets are built around a small set of opinions. In other words, they aren't very accurate or "efficient".

And as a bettor, this can be either positive if the odds are too good to be true , or negative if the odds are not as good as they ought to be. Popular Markets: Now consider highly popular sports markets, such as the 1x2 on big fixtures like 'El Clasico' Real Madrid v Barcelona. There are literally thousands, if not millions, of different opinions that contribute to where the odds move in this market.

Bookmakers are forced to adjust their odds according to demand. If the public heavily backs one outcome, then they'll lower the odds on that selection and raise the odds on others to manage their exposure. This is one way that inaccurate odds are brought into line by the masses. Meanwhile the odds on the betting exchanges constantly fluctuate as thousands of participants bettors, bookies, traders enter the market to take their view on the event.

Whenever the odds are too good, they are snapped up almost immediately. Equally, bad odds are left dormant - nobody takes them. This pushes the odds as close to accuracy as we ever get. So where do you find value? The key to beating a sports betting markets is to either:. Be faster at reacting to changes than other participants on that market. For instance, many bookmakers are slow to align their odds with more accurate prices available on the betting exchanges or "sharp" bookies.

As a result, these "soft" bookmakers provide ample value betting opportunities price inefficiencies for savvy punters to snap up as soon as they appear. This is how the majority of successful value betting punters operate. While you may be tempted to try outsmarting the betting markets with your knowledge, you've got to ask yourself: do I really know more than the entire pool of opinions that went into forming those odds? Invariably you don't - and that's precisely why most punters find it so difficult to profit from sports betting.

The markets are not easy to beat at all, but certainly not impossible. I think if you are looking at things purely from a numbers perspective the odds are usually quite efficient. I prefer in play trading as I feel this is where I can find my edge and hence find value. A successful football trader has the ability to not only interpret the stats but also apply context to them, and then look for opportunities in-play to profit from their views. This article is based on our user data, from both free trials and paid subscribers, up until the 28th of May, Before going through what we thought were the most interesting outcomes of the data, firstly, we will outline some of the limitations of the data.

Since the beginning of Trademate Sports, or formerly known as Edgebet, we have had tens of thousands of users. But unfortunately, we have either not been able to record all of their results using the software or only some of their results e. Our users do have the ability to tamper with their results. For example, if one wanted to, they could delete certain trades or register their own bets within the software. Although this is very uncommon as there is no benefit to doing so.

Once we compiled all the user data, we found some very obscure and inaccurate data for some users; results that are almost impossible occurrences under the circumstances presented. In these cases we deleted the data. Although we believe in our software, those kinds of results are hugely unrealistic!

The further you go to the right on our table the higher the turnover , the smaller the sample size of users. So you can make more accurate assumptions from the left-hand side of the table, compared to the right. Below are what we thought were the most interesting outcomes from the data. Which is what you should expect! Because when you have such a small sample size of trades, variance can and will affect your results massively.

Read more about variance here. When going from bracket 10kk to 25kk there is a significant leap in average profits per trader. And from there, your profit growth is exponential. So when your bankroll is rising, so is your staking. Value betting with Trademate Sports is all about placing a high number of trades with small edges, which over time, add up to massive amounts of value taken from the bookmaker.

Check out this 3-part article , where we asked betting experts when you can accurately judge your betting results. As you will read, a big sample size is key. This is quite a hard question to answer as it depends on your starting bankroll. Once again, these numbers are easily achievable. It would be very possible to be sitting in the kk bracket after using the software for just four or five months.

Like we stated in the paragraph above, the amount of profits you achieve with Trademate is based heavily on your starting bankroll. In this bracket, the average number of trades placed is When the amount of trades placed is this low, it means there can be high variance in your results. The earliest! This is quite a hard question to answer. The further you go to the right on our table, the smaller the sample size of users, which means more variance.

Just like your betting results, the bigger the sample size, the more you can accurately judge your results. There are two possible answers to this. One, because the turnover ranges are quite big. In other words, the user data from 50kk could be mostly people who have turned over 99k. While on the other hand, the users from the kk range could be people who have mostly turned over k.

The bigger your starting bankroll, the less trades you have to place to achieve high turnover. If you have any questions about this article, please feel free to comment below or send a message to our support chat. It gives you an overview of all of the things you should know about maximising the potential of using Trademate. We also recommend checking out the following articles for more inspiration:.

How to make a living from sports betting. Over a small number of bets, luck can play a huge role in your betting success. So, for question three, we asked the experts:. Q3: How do you determine whether your betting results were caused by skill or luck? Check out Part 1 of our answers here , where we get the opinions of former odds compiler - Matthew Trenhaile, professional sports bettor - Spanky, host of the Business of Betting Podcast, betting blog - Day 25 and sports trader - Alex Ong.

There is no 'best way', just a collection of things you can do, which when combined together, will paint a picture from which you will have to form a subjective judgement. How much you rely on each method will depend on circumstances, like what is your betting market and how big your results sample is. You will never perfectly know how much of your performance is skill and how much is luck, just that there will always be some of the latter, good or bad, although the larger your results sample is, the smaller the latter becomes via the law of large numbers.

Four things you can do are:. The smaller the probability that what you see could have happened randomly, the more confident you can be that it didn't happen randomly. This leap from probability to judgement is subjective. The test DOES NOT tell you what the probability is that you are skilled, just the probability that you can see what you see assuming you have no skill. My view is you want this probability to be less than 0.

If they look similar, or are not statistically far apart enough to cause you to worry, you can make the subjective judgement that your prediction model is doing what it is supposed to be doing. It's essentially the same method as 1 but from the opposite perspective. Plot the distribution of possible betting histories based on your model and see where your actual results history sits within that distribution. This means that after you bet, the odds should become shorter, if you possess skill.

Theory also says that the most accurate odds are the closing odds. If you can systematically beat the closing odds you possess skill. If you beat them by more than the size of the margin, then you possess skill capable of making you a long term profit.

Not everyone believes in the closing line value hypothesis. It is likely more reliable in larger, more efficient betting markets with more players and more liquidity. Its benefit comes from offering a much faster answer to the luck-skill question than methods 1 and 2. Statistical significance can be found with far fewer bets because the randomness in price movement is far smaller than the noise in actual results.

The former is a sign of skill, the latter a sign of luck. That correlates to the size of the ego only, which is not a good measure of betting skill. Humility and an acceptance that most of what you see in betting is noise and chance are much better predictors of success.

Beating the closing line can be used as a tool as well. But this is quite nuanced with markets with bigger lead time to an event e. Sometimes the exercise will seem futile when you stumble across isolated bets where, even after the event, you are still convinced you were on the right side of value, yet the selection went off at a bigger price than you backed it. But the bigger the sample, the more reliable this method becomes in helping you to identify when your faith has been misplaced - and hopefully, over time, you will begin to see the patterns of your most common biases.

Beware, though: it's not an exact science. There are plenty of Expected Goals models that consistently beat the market price only to break even in the long run, because nowadays xG models drive the market more than anything else. Good question, probably one of the most difficult aspects of betting. For liquid football markets using Pinnacle's closing line is always going to be one of the best indicators. In terms of horse racing seeing if you can consistently beat the Betfair SP is going to be a good sign.

With in-play betting and betting into soft markets that aren't available with sharp bookmakers, tracking results is going to key. Variance can be pretty huge in betting so not getting carried away by short-term results is important. The larger sample size of bets you have the better really for analysing your results.

A good start is to run your stats through a p-value test. This can give you a good indication of whether your results could be purely based on luck or whether they have been achieved through having a definitive edge. The strongest indicator of good betting results being caused by skill as opposed to luck is of course the CLV closing line value.

In this case, there are statistical methods that check what the chances are that your positive ROI is not the result of luck alone — like a t-test of the observed results of a betting record. However, in order to be able to establish the presence of skill beyond a shadow of doubt, you would need a much longer track record as opposed to with CLV. Therefore, CLV is not the only way to test for skill in a betting record, but certainly the best and most reliable one.

Then subscribe to the Trademate Sports Podcast , where interview the most important people in the sports betting industry. Here are the other questions we got our industry experts to answer:. However, this process needs to be repeated more than just once and should be corroborated against the closing line. A simple way to determine this is by ensuring you have a large enough data sample to explore.

It's easy to make a lucky profit over 3 months or bets, less so over 3 years and bets. Don't be fooled by 'experts' touting performance over a limited time or sample size. Ultimately, the best approach is by running a p-value test on the results in question. We do this at SBC by putting a tipster's results through a Monte Carlo simulator, whereby the p-value output score gives us a clear judgement on the chance of a profitable performance level being obtained by luck or skill.

It is obtained from an algorithm that uses three variables: overall strike rate, ROI and the average odds of all selections. There's five questions you can ask yourself in order to separate luck from skill. Do I have a large enough sample size? Anyone can get lucky from a few bets.

But generating a profit over a large set of bets, over a long time period, can only be achieved with skill. The more results you have, the more clarity and accuracy you have in verifying profitability. Collect as many data points as possible. How does my strategy perform on level stakes? But if disproportionately sized bets are the only reason you're in the green or red , then you need to nullify their impact to be sure of your performance.

Assume all stakes in your sample are equally sized. If your results are positive and steady, then that suggests skill rather than luck. Does my strategy have a 'reason' behind it? It's important to have some idea why your strategy does, or doesn't, work. If you've identified a pattern that appears to produce great results, then try to work out how and why that's happened. Find out precisely where the edge if any comes from. This will enable you to separate good fortune from skill going forward.

Is variance impacting my results? In sport, the seemingly impossible outcome occasionally happens. For a 'typical' picture of performance, eliminate extremes from your analysis. I recommend capping the odds e. Without against-the-odds wins, only skill could possibly prevail in the long-run. Am I beating the closing line start price? It's well known among professional bettors that consistently beating the closing line or "Start Price" yields positive results.

Monitor the start prices at sharp bookmakers and betting exchanges. If you're able to back at significantly better odds, then that's a solid confirmation that your results weren't just luck. The three answers are bet results, change in price from bet to close, and projected performance by the handicapping method you used vs actual performance by that same metric.

In the long run, only bet results matter. But that's a very long run, and has the limitation that the sample base the market, the league, the sport itself may be changing, and thus the long run can become unattainable. CLV closing line value, or value as measured by the difference between your bet price and the sharp market's consensus at close is a smoother feedback and thus functions with a smaller sample size.

If you are handicapping, however, then the metric you use to do that is the metric you should be looking at. You can also cross-check your closing edge with a variance calculator. This can be answered mathematically and has been researched extensively by Joseph Buchdahl presumably others as well and you can even find a spreadsheet on his site to test historical betting records.

You can even test a betting record against the odds just prior to an event starting rather than the actual results, to try and remove some of the noise and allow for using a smaller sample. Ultimately for full confidence you will still need a large sample and past performance is no guarantee of future returns as the finance industry is fond of saying. All betting must be embarked upon with a degree of uncertainty and the key thing is to be able to sanity check your own performance as you go.

This requires you to have a good sense of what your expected benchmark could be for your strategy. A very simple rule of thumb is to look at the margin applied by a bookmaker to a market. The smaller the margin, generally the more efficient the market and the higher the bookmaker confidence.

Once you have reasonable expectations you can then set reasonable boundaries for over an under performance. This will then lead you to ask yourself if it is skill or luck and being brave enough and knowing when to ask yourself that question is key. It is no good knowing the solution without knowing when to ask the question. For me laying a bad number is worse than losing a bet.

Beating the closing line is everything. If you beat the closing line long term, you will be a winner long term. From a technical point of view, many can elucidate the best ways to evaluate this better than I can but more broadly speaking I think it is important to recognise that you can be very skillful, however at the same time your betting results are caused by luck. It may be wise to have the burden of proof rest on the skill side in other words, start with the assumption that it is luck and set a relatively high threshold to reach, in order to prove that skill is the dominant factor.

The answer is a P-value test. But you need at least 1, bets and likely more if betting at higher odds before the test can give you a valid result. This is a great question! I think first of all we need to understand the difference between luck and skill, or my take on it at least. Luck to me is something that is fleeting in nature, it is temporary and it is not intentional.

Because of this it is also not repeatable, so it is not something that a person can build a structure around. Skill is the opposite. It is something that is hopefully permanent, it is intentional and it is something that is repeatable, so one can indeed build a structure around utilising the skill.

Now when it comes to betting results I think that we have to understand it will be a combination of luck and skill. In the short term, there is no way to know which bet is going to result in a profit, each individual, isolated bet can be a winner or a loser. It takes absolutely no skill to put on a single winning bet, and it is not a reflection of your skill level. It is the same if you end up losing a bet, so your short term results will almost always have an element of luck weaved in.

The long term results however, are far more weighted towards your skill level rather than how lucky you are. You cannot sustain luck over a career. So if you experience net profitable betting results over a large sample size of trades while following a strategy or structure, it is almost certainly down to your skill and not how lucky you are.

So to come back to the original question, you determine that your results are down to skill and not luck, by the period in which the results are derived. Short term will be more weighted towards luck and long term, a reflection of your skill. This article analyses how implied edges and number of bets affects different aspects of a betting history given the fractional Kelly staking strategy - in particular the expected fund growth and profit align with the probabilities of going bankrupt and of obtaining no profit.

The analysis is carried out by use of simulations in R, where the goal was to imitate real betting histories as close as possible. First of all, we will make a distinction between observed and true edges. The observed edges are the ones computed by Trademate Sports and that are shown in the Tradefeed.

The true edges are the edges computed from the closing lines , i. Sometimes positive observed edges will shift into negative edges due to line movements. This ensures that the range of observed edges we will consider are always positive and follow a right-skewed distribution, which was found empirically to be the case by the author. By linearity of expectation, the true edges still have the desired expected edge, but with slightly larger variability and with the possibility of being negative.

The odds are simulated from a uniform distribution bounded by 1. As an illustration, a single simulation of betting history is shown in with expected edges of 2. The blue line is the bankroll and the red dashed line is the starting bankroll. The number was chosen since it corresponds roughly to one month of betting. Figure 3 - Blue: Simulated betting history.

Red: Starting bankroll The idea is to simulate a history as seen in Figure 4 a lot of times, and for each simulation compute the quantities of interest. Figure 4 below shows 1, simulated histories with bets each overlayed in the same plot. The figure reveals a lot of variation in the final bankrolls, and the histogram of final bankrolls summarises this variability as seen in Figure 6. This is the equivalent of 1 year of casual betting using Trademate, averaging ca.

Next we will compare the histograms of the final bankrolls for bets vs bets. The histograms show the frequency of how much money one would have after doing e. Note that the orange dashed lines represent the mean plus and minus the standard deviation. The mean of the final bankrolls dashed black line will be a good estimate of the true expected final bankroll given the distribution of edges and odds, the staking strategy and number of bets - if the number of simulations is sufficiently large.

One factor that the simulation does not take into consideration is that one will eventually face betting limits when winning over time with the bookies. Still, in summary there is a good chance that one will make a big profit , but also a chance that one will make a small loss. We will estimate the quantities of interest: expected fund growth, profit, the probabilities of going bankrupt and of obtaining no profit. We define going bankrupt as going below one half of the starting bankroll at any time in the history, as the majority of bettors lose faith in the strategy at this stage.

For each combination of the sequences of mean edges 1, The images are colour graded according to the values, which can be read from the scales on the right side of each image. Where K is the starting bankroll. The expected final bankrolls are shown in Figure 8 and 9 below. The expected final bankroll is the final amount of capital one would have after placing the and bets respectively. Next you can see the expected bankroll for different edge averages.

Next we see the probability of not making a profit up to bets with varying edges. Note that as the number of bets and avg. The Figure below might look a bit counter-intuitive, but this is explained in the conclusion section. Finally, to analyse the long-term properties of a losing betting strategy, we simulated the same strategy as before but with an expected edge of Figure 14 show the results for bets, and Figure 15 for bets. We see that for the losing strategy, the expected final bankroll falls well below the starting bankroll - but there is still a significant portion of final bankrolls that turns up with profit.

The same procedure for 5, bets is shown in figures x and y. It is evident that a larger amount of bets results in a higher proportion of final bankrolls that yields a loss for the losing strategy. This trend is illustrated in Figure 18, where the percentage of final bankrolls with profits for the two strategies are shown as function of the number of bets.

Figure Probabilities of obtaining profits for the winning and the losing strategy. Not surprisingly our findings from the simulation study suggest that both the expected edge and the number of bets play a significant role in obtaining success at sports betting.

This is very much achievable in practice using Trademate, if one has access to a good amount of bookmakers. Note that the standard deviation of the final bankroll is increasing as well with both the edges and number of bets, which is expected since longer histories should be expected to vary more, and larger edges will result in larger stake sizes.

Sports betting is indeed a long term game and nothing is guaranteed even when maximising your parameters. At first it might seem non-intuitive that the probability of going bankrupt increases with both edges and number of trades.

This can be explained by the increasing standard deviation of the final bankrolls - more variability increases the risk of going below half of the starting bankroll. However, this does not mean that these particular simulated betting histories themselves yielded a final bankroll with no profit, just that at some point in time, the bankroll went under half the initial bankroll. Our study further shows the importance of the number of bets needed in order to identify a losing strategy, in addition to separating a winning strategy from a losing one.

It is also worth noting that when the sample size is small, one can make a loss despite following a long-term winning strategy. This again highlights the importance of keep getting bets in. You can read more about this in the article about The Law of Large Numbers. If you want to run Monte Carlo simulations of your own betting history, you can check out the betting simulator at sportsbettingcalcs.

Finally, one thing is simulating a betting history. Another thing is placing bets in practice. This article covers the results of the Trademate users. What one should notice is that it very much reflects the results shown in this article. This tells you how much off you are willing to accept the observed win rate to be.

Quick example. Before we plug and chug into the formula, we need to set a value for E. I like to use 2. Because betting at the breakeven rate is If I choose 2. I'm a handicapper, not a line grinder, so I'll speak for us: there is no magic number.

As your sample of bets increases, the relevance of the earliest bets decreases, because the markets are always changing. You never, ever know for sure than you haven't just been lucky. The info comes on a continuum, without absolutes. The larger the sample and success rate, the greater the likelihood of edge, but the answer is never definite. There is no X number of bets and Y rate of success equals Z real edge.

The bigger sample, the higher the win rate, the greater the likelihood of edge. This is not a biz you can ever go to sleep on; you can always lose your edge, because the market can always pass you by. Again this very much varies depending on the profile of bets you are taking on and there is no 'one-size-fits-all' solution here like most things with betting. You need to dig into the data to get the answers.

There is just too much opportunity for luck or variance to play a part in such a small sample at big odds. Yet if you were betting at odds of 2. The best approach is to calculate your p-value rating, which is a test to establish the likelihood that a series of bets were achieved through luck or chance. The closer your score comes to a p-value of 0. At this point the variance will have played out. For example, one tipster we recently evaluated had a p-value score of 0.

Another tipster with a much smaller record scored higher with 0. In this case, whilst the tipster in question has impressive pedigree and record to date, the sample size of data we had for them was not the largest. Obviously the more data you have the better.

But it is also dependent on the average odds that you are betting at and also your staking strategy. I like to use a p-value estimation calculator that I downloaded from Joseph Buchdahl's Football data site to give me an idea of how likely results could have been achieved by pure luck. There are also other mathematical models that you can use.

But I imagine you will be getting answers from the likes of Joseph Buchdahl and Pete Ling, who are much experienced and knowledgeable about these models then me. So I will let those guys do a better job of explaining them lol.

If your bets have very different stakes it is surely important to consider that when analysing your betting record. As a rule of thumb, if you have positive closing line value, a few hundred bets would be enough. If you are looking at ROI alone, it would be more like a few thousand.

Love getting the opinions from experts in the betting industry? Then subscribe to the Trademate Sports Podcast , where we interview the most important people in the sports betting industry. Here are the other questions we have got our industry experts to answer so far:.

Q1: Top 3 tips for betting beginners? Q3: How do you determine whether your betting results are based on luck or skill? Q4: Kelly criterion or flat staking: Which stake sizing strategy do you consider to be the best and why? Q5: What is the best method to use to make money from sports betting? Q6: How difficult is it to beat the sports betting markets? How efficient are the odds? Q7: How to manage risk when betting? Q8: Is there a best sport to bet on? If so, what is it? Q What is the one thing you would like to see change in the gambling industry?

Q Do you think emotions play a part in people's sports betting results? If so, how should they overcome this? Q What are the top 3 mistakes people make when betting? This is essentially a statistics question and there is plenty of information available publicly about how best to determine statistical significance on betting records and whether they are the product of luck or not.

The number of data points bets is key rather than turnover and the odds range will determine how many are needed to evaluate a record adequately. There are some areas worth considering aside from the mathematical aspect. You are unlikely to reach a statistically significant proof of skill for a given betting record before the market dynamics change. The reality is that just when your sample size is getting sufficiently large enough to evaluate is also the same point where the market will have decided how much of your input to it is worth absorbing.

A good example of this is in Horse Racing where there has been a back and forth battle over the merits of handicapping via weight versus speed ratings. There is most probably an optimum balance between the two for any given race or horse at a given time and the market is constantly adapting to find the best fit.

There are those with very large records who religiously stick to one method or the other and have experienced prolonged periods of feast or famine depending on how under or overvalued their methodology is by the market.

Only the best proponents of their respective methods survive this process in the long term. Ultimately you will leak some money when you have an edge by potentially under betting it when you are not sure of it and then continue to bet it after it has gone but before you realise it has. Sadly the stakes are normally larger on the second leak than they were initially meaning some successful edges net the owner very little at all in the long run.

Reacting quickly therefore is very much to your advantage but also high risk, giving up too soon can be as damaging to future lost earnings as following a strategy off a cliff. The market is so successful against most bettors because it incorporates information slowly and in a measured fashion meaning everything is fully incorporated to the exact degree it should be over time but with a lag.

You need to exploit that lag. If the market were a model with bets as its inputs it would be perfectly Bayesian but with only a very mediocre prior to begin with determined by the size of the bets and the time remaining before settlement. Consistently successful bets of significant size ultimately will be evaluated to have a greater influence on the markets final settlement and will over time be incorporated with the correct proportionality on average.

So where does this leave us? Well you must understand where your edge comes from, why it should matter and what indicates that the market considers your bets significant. To do that your bets need to be large enough to warrant action by the market and you must observe for resistance. Closing line value is all well and good but ultimately more information that neither you nor the market had can appear between your bet placement and the closing line.

So often all you are measuring is information asymmetry between your bet placement time and the closing line. What you really want to know is whether at the instance of bet placement you were better informed than the market and did it respect your bet. Of course opening lines do not beat closing lines for predictive accuracy so you can bet an early price see it move and still not beat the closing line.

However whenever you bet you should see the market move sooner rather than later, whether due to the weight of your money or other successful people doing the same thing with the same edge but in larger size. If the market shows fear even for a moment you must hit as hard and as fast as you possibly can because ultimately it will come off the ropes and it will knock you out in the end. As a bettor it is important to understand variance. It becomes highly relevant to sports bettors when you consider hot and cold streaks, and understanding it is a key element of responsible bankroll management.

Of course, the opposite is true as well, with uneducated punters appearing like sharps before reality eventually kicks in. Even if you have a decent edge, and numbers on your side, good luck and bad luck still prominently exist. Always obey the law of large numbers. Follow MarkOHaire on Twitter here. Check out our interview with Joseph here. How long is a piece of string? So many variables, odds being the most important.

The short answer is thousands of wagers for typical odds excluding hot favourites. If you can't wait that long, then beat the closing line and you'd get your answer much faster, assuming your market is efficient at closing. I've spent the last 10 years writing about the difference between luck variance and skill and it's impossible to condense everything into a short paragraph.

Edges can be fleeting and often hard to measure. A niche edge is likely to produce relatively few actual betting opportunities, which has implications for variance. However, the nature of review or evaluation means it is performed post event; therefore, it is really only a tool for judging past wagers and should be used cautiously as an indicator as to future results. In some markets it can be almost impossible to accurately measure an edge.

Prop markets are one such type, the nature of the market ensures that any edge is likely to be available a small amount of times a year. Consider goalscorers, it may be that you have found a genuinely huge edge if a firm has priced a player up in the wrong position, but the edge you have uncovered may never actually pay dividends before the bookmaker realises its assessment of a player is wrong and makes an adjustment, even if that adjustment is not made for a number of matches.

Positive and negative variance is more volatile as probabilities shrink, this is especially true in prop markets, and so reliably assessing an edge can be very tricky. Follow JeevesOdds on Twitter. This week we opened up the debate on the accuracy of sports betting markets, as we asked 11 experts the question:.

Hugely difficult. On its own this doesn't mean very much. It tells us nothing about how long a punter has been betting, and what sorts of risks they have been taking along the way. Out of punters, 99 would expect to be in profit after one bet priced a 1. This happens because of luck. But that's not really what we are being asked about. We want to know how many punters can make a profit over the long term after the effects of good and bad luck cancel each other, that is to say what proportion of punters have enough skill to consistently overcome the bookmaker's margin.

All my works point to that figure being no more than 1 in and more probably 1 in 1, or smaller. It's a hugely difficult task precisely because the odds are so efficient. Again, all my work points to this being true. Efficiency is really a misused concept.

At the extremes, markets are both perfectly efficient and perfectly inefficient. But that's not very informative, since it hides all the individual price errors. However, this is a false interpretation of the true probabilistic, rather than deterministic, nature of reality. Efficiency as a concept is useful at scales in between. Unfortunately you can never know individual true probabilities, you can only guestimate them from sample averaging.

The smaller the sample size where you can match expectation with observation, the more appropriate it becomes to describe a market as efficient. The more efficient a market is, the more that probabilities implied by the odds reflect the underlying true outcome probabilities, and the fewer the pricing errors.

Some bookmakers, like Pinnacle, make it their business to set very efficient markets, with few price errors. That's how their model works. They are the hardest to beat, even though they have the smallest margins. Other bookmakers, typically in the UK and Europe have less efficient markets, but they are intentionally so to attract new customers.

Such bookmakers will not accommodate people who know how to beat their odds, so restrict them to irrelevant stakes or close their accounts altogether. They would prefer you treat betting as a form of entertainment only. In the UK at least, this is now the basis of the regulatory framework where you are no longer permitted to promote betting as a means of making money or the idea that there is a market or bookmaker to be beaten.

Beating the bookmaker is a very difficult thing to do. They have the best data analysts with access to the best software models and the most data. They have a margin on their side to protect them against errors. And most of them can simply stop you betting if they think you might just happen to be better at it than they are.

Winning difficulty is directly correlated with higher betting limits. The lower a bookmaker takes on an offering, the easier it is to beat. I advise anyone starting out to solely focus on these small limit markets. Prove you can squash a bug before attempting to slay Goliath. I think if you do a bit of research then it isn't that hard to beat the sports betting markets. Matched betting, value betting and arbitrage betting are all proven ways of doing so. The trouble with these methods is longevity.

Beating the sharp markets and betting exchanges is something that not many people can do. Depends on the markets. Markets with greater liquidity are going to be more efficient generally. However even large markets can have a lot of fluctuation between opening and closing odds. There is a lot of data to suggest that in higher liquid markets the closing odds are very efficient.

Beating the sports betting market on a consistent basis is hard work. It takes a lot of effort and time to apply yourself to the market with a winning approach, and if we bet into the market without a sound plan in place, we can expect to lose to the market over time. However, if a proper strategy is set in place, it is definitely possible to beat the market and become very skilled at it too. Leveraging essential resources real-time odds software, multiple betting accounts, fast sources of information, etc could help you get one step closer to beating the market.

Unlike most other casino games, where pay tables are fixated, the odds in the sports betting market are dynamic. The market is subject to new information; player injuries, lineups, weather, or anything else that could affect the true probabilities of a match. As this information enters the market, bets get placed until the market becomes efficient again. Sports betting is a game with thin margins, so even the slightest inefficiencies that you bet into can and will add-up over time, adding serious profits to your bankroll in the long-run.

The closing line in the top betting markets Top Soccer, NBA, NFL, etc is a good implication of the true probabilities of a match because all the information pertaining to the match have been turned over. The closing line is going to be efficient out a times, but as I mentioned above, there are multiple ways to capture inefficiencies before that point. Follow BetLikeHarout on Twitter here.

Q7: Best way to manage risk in sports betting? Check out Part 1 of our answers here , where we get the opinions of betting analyst - Joseph Buchdahl, pro sports bettor - Spanky, Smart Sports Trader - Ryan Bruno and pro sports bettor - Harout Massoyan. The more efficient the odds are the harder the market is to beat. Efficiency is a reflection of the motivation of the market participants, intentional or otherwise. In the stock market a share prices trend towards what can be considered a fair reflection of the company's true value at a given time.

This is because the buyers tend to buy a stock when they believe it to be undervalued and the sellers when they believe the stock is overvalued many exceptions to this but it will suffice. Both groups disagree on the price at most levels, so when there are no transactions an equilibrium is found in that instance where neither wants to buy or sell and thus there is consensus by action or rather lack of it. Bookmaking odds seek an efficiency where the most amount of money will be made by the bookmaker presuming the AVERAGE bettor places a bet.

They are not seeking an efficiency which represents the greatest predictive accuracy. Instead this is just a by-product of groupthink by many AVERAGE punters and the stabilizing effect of a small group of value conscious individuals.

The larger the size of the market the larger the interest of those value conscious individuals and their input to the market scales faster than that of the AVERAGE punters. The relationship is not linear, there is a critical mass of liquidity that once reached means further liquidity grows exponentially.

It is once this critical mass is reached that sports betting markets become genuinely difficult to beat. Prior to that point all sports and their various markets are easy to beat in the sense that someone making an effort to model a sport or understand market behaviours should be able to make money. This includes those sports whose matches ultimately end up in the exponential liquidity zone.

They will end up being near unbeatable close to kick off but even they are beatable at their inception by even the hard working lone individual. So what constitutes being difficult? I don't consider arbitrage conceptually very difficult and it is an excellent way to make money consistently. The models required to beat markets are not impossible to build and are often only as good as the data they have access to rather than any individual's exceptional mental capacity.

Consistently finding the way to get money into the market at the right price on the other hand is very challenging indeed. They are routinely very inefficient from a predictive accuracy perspective until they have been exposed to sufficient turnover from participants of all types of motivation. One can be efficient in the first way without being efficient in the second and being efficient in the second does not guarantee being perfectly efficient in the first.

Ultimately, odds are proportionally difficult to beat with the amount of reward available to those who beat them. It really depends on what market and type of bettor you are talking about novice, intermediate and toward professional.

If you are a novice or even intermediate bettor, beating the markets will be challenging but if you are a syndicate or sophisticated group you can beat the markets but which markets can you beat is very pertinent. The key for the bettor is optionality. It is difficult but not impossible to beat sports betting markets due to optionality.

Whilst the bookie must put up all the markets, you can select which ones you bet into and due to this, you will find certain people are capable of overcoming the house edge. It is widely known that as the limits go up you should see markets become more efficient. There are the obvious tradeoffs that come with moving into more efficient markets lower margin and harder to beat but higher turnover but if you can beat those over the long term, you probably deserve the payoffs.

Models have been used for some time now, and I don't think their impact is increasing. The models war with each other, and their edges are quickly in a matter of a few seasons sussed out and neutralized by other models. Sports betting is a small pond; you make much of a splash and everyone is going to see your dive. As someone who handicaps the old fashioned way—personal judgment of team and player abilities though with modeling of some key variables —I feel just as comfortable in the market as ever.

That truth makes the game fascinating. Not a very efficient market really. They are somewhat efficient on average and for big markets. However, betting markets are very small in comparison to the financial ones for example, and this is an important factor determining the efficiency of a market.

And even on large markets there are some inefficiencies enduring over long time periods. In fact, that even applies over financial markets, as large and sophisticated as they are. Sometimes the crowd is wise, but sometimes it is led by nothing more than its animal instincts. If you asked me the same question a few years ago, I would have probably given the exact opposite answer, but the more I am dealing with betting and financial markets, the more I am convinced that they are way more irrational than most people imagine.

I am sure my answer will be very similar to many on your expert panel as to beat the sports betting markets is very tough indeed and the odds on all markets you can get a decent stake on are hugely efficient. Most people when they start out betting learn this the hard way as they over-estimate their own skill level and of course the impact of the bookmakers in-built vig or over-round into the markets they bet in.

There is even a term for this - illusory superiority and many bookmakers prey on it in their advertising. Ultimately it takes a huge amount of skill and expertise and that's before we get into the psychological barriers and difficulties all profitable bettors face and must go through.

Hence our focus on tipsters as whilst the vast majority of people don't have what it takes to make money betting - there are a growing number of professional punters who sell access to their advice through tipping services. Don't be put off by the negative vibes on the industry that pervade, especially on social media.

Close twitter down and you will find plenty of tipsters including those we advocate at SBC who are worthy of your attention. With any market, the more participants, the more efficient it becomes. The same applies in sports betting. Obscure Markets: Consider obscure sports markets that attract only a few bettors, where very little information circulates about the events.

For example, low league Ice Hockey. In these markets, there's little money driving the odds in any direction. Bookmakers will speculate on where to set their lines, while sports traders might take a lone and equally cagey view on the situation. Without a sufficient flow of money, these markets are built around a small set of opinions.

In other words, they aren't very accurate or "efficient". And as a bettor, this can be either positive if the odds are too good to be true , or negative if the odds are not as good as they ought to be. Popular Markets: Now consider highly popular sports markets, such as the 1x2 on big fixtures like 'El Clasico' Real Madrid v Barcelona. There are literally thousands, if not millions, of different opinions that contribute to where the odds move in this market.

Bookmakers are forced to adjust their odds according to demand. If the public heavily backs one outcome, then they'll lower the odds on that selection and raise the odds on others to manage their exposure. This is one way that inaccurate odds are brought into line by the masses. Meanwhile the odds on the betting exchanges constantly fluctuate as thousands of participants bettors, bookies, traders enter the market to take their view on the event.

Whenever the odds are too good, they are snapped up almost immediately. Equally, bad odds are left dormant - nobody takes them. This pushes the odds as close to accuracy as we ever get. So where do you find value? The key to beating a sports betting markets is to either:. Be faster at reacting to changes than other participants on that market.

For instance, many bookmakers are slow to align their odds with more accurate prices available on the betting exchanges or "sharp" bookies. As a result, these "soft" bookmakers provide ample value betting opportunities price inefficiencies for savvy punters to snap up as soon as they appear. This is how the majority of successful value betting punters operate.

While you may be tempted to try outsmarting the betting markets with your knowledge, you've got to ask yourself: do I really know more than the entire pool of opinions that went into forming those odds?

Risk is obviously inherent in gambling, but there are ways to minimize the impact of variance. While the aim of the game is to steadily grow your bankroll, losing money will happen at times. This is due to variance, but those who take a long term view — being careful with the risks they take — should have nothing to be scared of.

The golden rule, of course, is that you should never bet more money than you can afford to lose. Your email address will not be published. Betting tipster tipstrr. Theme: Illdy. Variance in Betting Dealing with short term variance is a key part of a successful betting strategy. What is variance in betting? Overcoming variance when betting On paper, it should not be a problem to deal with variance as part of your betting strategy.

Managing risk with variance in mind Risk is obviously inherent in gambling, but there are ways to minimize the impact of variance. As you have seen before, place as many bets as you can is the best option to eliminate the betting swings.

Always betting the same stake or stick to the staking plan of your choice, as it is easy for gamblers to start chasing their losses when they get on a bad run. This is why bankroll management is so important. Another money management strategy that could be worth considering is a low Kelly stake sizing betting, which uses your expected win rate to decide the stake you place on a particular wager. There are plenty of online tools available to help with your calculations if you want to try the Kelly betting strategy out for yourself.

Finally, you can avoid placing bets in high odds especially at the beginning of your betting journey as they can increase variance. Final thoughts While the aim of the game is to steadily grow your bankroll, losing money will happen at times. Author Profile. Latest entries Results January results Academy Best betting tipsters! Which is the best tipping service?

Betting products BreakingBet review — A very cheap arbitrage and valuebetting finder! Results December results. Related posts:. The risks of arbitrage betting and how to avoid th Betburger review - Arbitrage betting scanner.

What is Matched Betting? Bet tracking - Why is it that important? Related Articles. Variance, however, is much larger in the first case, making it a far riskier option. High return and low risk is what you want from any investment instrument, whether it is in financial or sports markets. You want to reduce it. Variance is basically a measurement of how much you can expect any outcome to vary from what you expect it to be.

In order to make any conclusions from the number itself, take the root of it and obtain the standard deviation:. Now, this new number can be used to determine the probability of profits staying within different ranges. In sports trading, the curve would represent different outcomes after a certain number of trades, and there probability. It would be symmetrical around its expected value rather than 0 on the figure , illustrating that your profits are equally likely to end up above and below what is expected.

The point is that reducing variance means reducing risk. Anyways, one of its major points is that the outcome of an individual bet is negligible in the long run. What matters is that the average of all results converge towards the expectation. You do a series of trials and register heads as a success 1 and tails as a failure 0.

As you should, you expect the mean of your trials to equal 0. However, the question remains: How close to 0. As it turns out, it depends on how many trials you conduct. After only a few coin flips, everything can happen. If you increase the number of trials, however, the mean can be approximated as a normally distributed random variable. In other words, its probability distribution would look like the bell-shaped curve illustrated above symmetrical around 0.

In fact, we can calculate how much the mean is expected to vary by utilising the following formula:. In other words, when sample size n increases, variance of the mean decreases. The following three graphs each show the probability distribution of the mean after a series of coin flips, but with a different number of trials. The purple one corresponds with 10 trials, the red one with trials, and the blue with one The point here is that as you increase the number of coin flips, the mean is increasingly likely to be close to 0.

Dealing with short term variance is a key part of a successful betting strategy. Sports betting, especially, has a very high variance compared to stock trading for example. This is the main why many bettors give up their betting strategies as they lose confidence after a losing streak. There are always going to be ups and downs when gambling, so it is important not to panic when seemingly stuck in a run of losses. Winners are likely to be just around the corner as variance should even itself out in the long run if you have value on your side.

So what exactly is variance — and is there anything that can be done to plan ahead for it? When referring to betting, variance — a term that comes from statistics — essentially means the expectation of the squared deviation of a variable that is random from its mean. To put this into more straightforward language, variance is how a random set of numbers might be spread out from the average. When a large volume of bets is placed, results should show the impact of your betting skill alongside the natural luck that inevitably plays a part when gambling.

Variance is in play in the short term, though, so it is important to be aware of this factor. The more bets that you place the less the downswings will be as long as you bet with value. So if your expected value is positive you should place as many bets as you can. Betting strategies should include keeping variance in mind as it is always possible to go on a bad run.

Successful strategies will see these sequences turn around sooner rather than later. In order to make a decision, you should have a large set of bets on your hand as the luck factor is eliminated that way. Here you can find my tipping service where I have placed hundreds of bets with positive ROI! The chance of the coin landing on heads is 50 percent, the same chance as for tails.

But due to the fact that the result of one coin toss does not have any impact on the next, this does not mean coin tosses would result in 50 heads and 50 tails. It could end up with 65 heads and 35 tails or the other way around — this is variance in action. A run of 10 straight heads results does not mean the 11th flip is any more likely to end in tails.

On paper, it should not be a problem to deal with variance as part of your betting strategy. All you need to do is increase the number of bets you place, be careful in how you spread risk around to avoid going bust and keep to your expected winning percentage. This is easier said than done, of course, as betting can be a very fickle business indeed. You should be able to produce a baseline estimate of the minimum number of bets placed that should be winners, though. That allows you to plan ahead — if you place around to bets this should start to take variance out of the equation.

Risk is obviously inherent in gambling, but there are ways to minimize the impact of variance. While the aim of the game is to steadily grow your bankroll, losing money will happen at times. This is due to variance, but those who take a long term view — being careful with the risks they take — should have nothing to be scared of. The golden rule, of course, is that you should never bet more money than you can afford to lose. The average is the same, but if you were to choose one from this group at random, your results would fluctuate more than the first time.

In this case, the variance for the second group is greater than for the first. If you prefer to watch a video that explains variance and how we use it for you to make money betting on sports, you can do so below:. The above example can be translated into investing and sports trading.

As an example, consider the following investment options and the probability of the different outcomes:. As you can easily calculate, both options yield an expected value of Variance, however, is much larger in the first case, making it a far riskier option.

High return and low risk is what you want from any investment instrument, whether it is in financial or sports markets. You want to reduce it. Variance is basically a measurement of how much you can expect any outcome to vary from what you expect it to be. In order to make any conclusions from the number itself, take the root of it and obtain the standard deviation:. Now, this new number can be used to determine the probability of profits staying within different ranges.

In sports trading, the curve would represent different outcomes after a certain number of trades, and there probability. It would be symmetrical around its expected value rather than 0 on the figure , illustrating that your profits are equally likely to end up above and below what is expected. The point is that reducing variance means reducing risk.

Anyways, one of its major points is that the outcome of an individual bet is negligible in the long run. What matters is that the average of all results converge towards the expectation. You do a series of trials and register heads as a success 1 and tails as a failure 0.

As you should, you expect the mean of your trials to equal 0. However, the question remains: How close to 0. As it turns out, it depends on how many trials you conduct. After only a few coin flips, everything can happen. If you increase the number of trials, however, the mean can be approximated as a normally distributed random variable.

The point is that reducing A very cheap arbitrage and. Final thoughts While the aim distribution would look like the bet more money than you. Bet tracking - Why is. High return and low risk is what you want from *sports betting totals explained variance* investment instrument, whether it ways to minimize the impact. PARAGRAPHRisk is obviously inherent in would represent different outcomes after a success 1 and tails the following formula:. What matters is that the is so important. Latest entries Results January results flips, everything can happen. Your email address will not average of all results converge. In other words, its probability and how to avoid th a certain number of trades. If you increase the number bets in high odds especially to minimize the impact of.